Week 4 Assignment.docx - Week 4 Assignment Nervous Tissue....

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Week 4 AssignmentNervous Tissue. Spinal Cord. Spinal Reflexes.IntroductionThis week I have been learning about the nervous tissue. I now have a better understanding onhow neurons generate charges from their membrane potential. I studied different tissues of thenervous system, and structures of the spinal cord. I also learned about human cadaver dissectionsand its alternatives. Lastly, I chose my clinical application for the function of action potentials tobe multiple sclerosis.HistologyMotor neurons- Motor neurons are found in the ventral horn. Motor neurons are multipolar,meaning that they have a long axon and two or more dendrites. They are also known as efferentneurons because they are the ones the carry instructionsfrom the central nervous system to the effectors in theperipheral nervous system. There are somatic motor neuronsand visceral motor neurons. Somatic neurons of the somaticnervous system innervate skeletal muscles. While visceralmotor neurons of the autonomic nervous tissue innervate allthe other peripheral effectors, smooth and cardiac muscle,glands, and adipose tissue. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS) is a disorder of the motor neurons. It affects theupper and lower motor neurons and results in an acceleratedloss of muscle control and paralysis. Rizuole and Edaravone are used to treat ALS. Rizuole canextend the life of somene with ALS, it is not entirely understood how it works and it can’treverse any damage done to motor neurons. Edaravone prevents the progression of the disease,but it like Rizuole it can’t repair damaged motor neurons.Ependymal cell- Ependymal cells create and monitor cerebral spinal fluid and they havemicrovilli and cilia on them to circulate and absorb it. They form the epithelium that lines theventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinalcord. Malformations of ependymal linings have beendiscovered to be the cause of Hydrocephalus.Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the ventricles ofthe brain. The buildup causes the ventricles to be wider,which puts pressure on the brain. The pressure can stopthe brain from functioning as it should and it can causebrain damage, and even death. Symptoms includevomiting, blurred vision, balance problems, poorcoordination, sleepiness, personality or cognition changeslike memory loss, and more. The surgical procedure of placing a shunt into the brain is a form oftreatment. The shunt is connected to a tube that drains the excess fluid into the abdomen or chestcavity. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is another treatment procedure. A small hole is made inthe third ventricle so that the pressure can be relieved.
Oligodendrocytes- Oligodendrocytes are cells with sheet-like process that wrap around axons.

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