PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MANAGEMENT BUSS 100 DEFINITIONS OF MANAGEMENT Different experts have defined management using different approaches. They include; 1. William sprigged: Management is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of the various activities to attain business objectives. 2. Sir Charles Reynolds: Management is “The process of getting things done through others. 3. Elmore Peterson and E.G Plowman: Management is: a technique by means of which the purpose and objectives of a particular human group are determined, clarified and effectuated. 4. James D. Mooney, management is the art of directing and inspiring people. 5. John F. Mee: Management is the art of securing maximum results with a minimum effort so as to secure maximum prosperity for the employer and employee, and give the public the best possible service. 6. Dalton E.Mc Farland: Management is the process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through systematic, co- ordinate, co-operative human effort. 7. Koontz and O’Donnell: Management is the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals, working in groups, can perform efficiently and effectively toward the attainment of group of goals. It is the art of getting the work done through and with people in formally organized groups. 8. Bateman: Management is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organization goals. From the above definitions, we can conclude that management refers to all those activities which are concerned with:- i. Formulation of objectives, plans and policies of the collective enterprise. ii. Assembling men, money, materials, machines and methods for their accomplishment. iii. Directing and motivating the employees at work. iv. Coordinating the physical and human resources. v. Supervising and controlling performance. vi. Securing maximum satisfaction for both employer and employee and providing the public with the best possible services. Management as a process Management process comprises several intertwined elements by which managers determine and accomplish definitive objectives. These elements or functions may be classified as planning (preparing for the future), organizing and staffing (assembling 1
resources and creating interrelationship among them), directing (guiding, supervising and inspiring people) and controlling (keeping activities on the right track). The true character of management can be seen only as a process composed of managerial functions. According to Peter F. Drunker the manager has the task of creating a true whole’ that is larger than the sum of its parts, a productive entity that turns out more than the sum of the resources put into it.
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