history - Newton Newton is known to us today as an exemplar of enlightened rationality the greatest scientist Today Newton is famous for his Principia

history - Newton Newton is known to us today as an exemplar...

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Newton Newton is known to us today as an exemplar of enlightened rationality, the greatest scientist. Today Newton is famous for his Principia and Optics. In Opticks, he showed that white light is made up of the colours of the rainbow, and conducted some gruesome experiments on what he called spectra by poking sticks behind his eyes. His Principia was widely seen by contemporaries as the final word on the workings of the universe, a revelation of God’s plan for the world in all its mathematical detail. Central to this plan was of course the force of gravity, which Newton said, for the first time, acted in the same way everywhere in the universe, and obeyed an inverse square law, which tallied with evidence on the motion of the moon, the planets, and the earth around the sun.In many ways, Newton could be said to have invented modern science, with its focuson mathematics and experiment, and its objective view of the world, removing anything which is not founded on rigorous reasoning and evidence. But Newton gained much of his inspiration and his ways of thinking from what today would be considered absolutely esoteric, magical and antiquated ways of thinking. All in all, Sir Isaac Newton was one of, if not the most, influential fathers of modern Calculus and all other fields of mathematics. Without his formulas, most of the things that we do in math would be impossible. Nicolaus Copernicus His theory was heliocentric (sun-centered) rather than geocentric (earth-centered). The geocentric model is also called the Ptolemaic model, after the Greek philosopher Ptolemy. Decades after he first came up with the heliocentric theory, Copernicus published his ideas in On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. It summarized the theory. Besides the idea that everything orbited the sun rather than the earth, the significant parts included the idea that retrograde and direct motion could be explained by the rotation of the earth, the idea that there is no one center of all the celestial circles and spheres, and the idea that the earth has more than one motion. As for the influence of this discovery, it is influential for more than the actual knowledge itself. This discovery is often thought of as the opening salvo in the scientific revolution, that is, the triumph of knowledge and reason over religious superstition. Interestingly, the champions of this revolution were mostly religious men themselves; however, they obviously viewed God and man's spiritual nature as something that could be examined, at least in part, through man's power of reason and not through the dictates of a tyrannical priestly class. So I would not class this as a revolution of science over the idea of God, but of reason over oppressive religion. The scientific revolution apparently influenced the Age of Enlightment; it seems to me that the Age of Enlightment was the scientific method applied to the examination of nature, the nature of man as an individual and of government and society. This, of
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