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Unformatted text preview: Psyc 103 Study Guide 23/10/2007 03:10:00 ← 1. Describe three criteria that are used to judge scientific theories, and explain why each is thought to be important. (pg. 6-7) • Falsifiability : degree to which a theory can be tested against facts/can be proven o Theory that cannot be proven wrong has no predictive value o A theory must make definite predictions, because if there is room for reinterpretation and modification of the predictions after the data are collected, any result can be explain by the theory • Generality : theories that deal with more phenomena, with a great range of observation is preferred • Simplicity : fewer constructs and assumptions are preferred • Fruitfulness : ability to stimulate further research and further thinking about a particular topic o Even if theory is wrong, will have served a useful function if it proved new studies that otherwise would not have been done • Agreement with Data : how well it coincides with facts o If contradict well-established facts, theory must be modified or discarded o If theory accounts for facts fairly well, may be retained ← 2. Describe several ways that expectation effects can alter the outcome of an experiment with human subjects. How can the possibility of expectation effects be minimized? (pg. 9-10) • Placebo effect : whenever people realize they are participating in an experiment, their behaviors may change or improve, even if they are in a control group and receive no special treatment---subjects expect something to happen and can change the results • Experimenter effects : placebo effect occurs can occur if only the person administering the experiment knows what sort of result is being sought--- differences in the experimenter’s behavior can have significant effects on the a subject’s performance • Double-blind procedure : to avoid placebo effects and experimenter effects, neither the subjects nor the person conducting the experiment knows whether that subject is in the control group or the experimental group; then any expectations they have can be removed that would may otherwise change the data of the experiment ← 3. What is the biggest problem with using anecdotes or case histories as psychological data? How can this problem be avoided? (pg. 8) • the cases reported may represent a biased sample : reported cases where treatment of the disorder was successful, and not those where the treatment was ineffective • to avoid this, report such information as o number of cases of the disorder they have encountered o the number of patients selected for treatment o criteria used to select these patient...
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYC 103 taught by Professor Pearlberg during the Fall '07 term at UCSD.
- Fall '07