Psyc 103 Exam II Study Guide

Psyc 103 Exam II Study Guide - Psyc 103 Exam II Study Guide...

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Psyc 103 Exam II Study Guide 13/11/2007 16:52:00 CHAPTER 6 1.) Describe Thorndike’s experiments with the puzzle box, and what he  concluded. A hungry animal was placed in a puzzle box which is a type of experimental  chamber in which an animal had to make a certain response in order to open  the door and obtain food that was available Animal’s first production of he appropriate response occurred purely by  accident His measure of performance was escape latency: the amount of time it took  the subject to escape on each trial Gradual improvement over trials to the progressive strengthening of an  stimuli-response connect: stimuli-inside the box; response-whatever behavior  opened the door Thorndoke’s Law of Effect: responses that are followed by pleasant or  satisfying (discomfort) stimuli will be strengthened (weakened) and will occur  more (less) often in the future o “satisfying state of affairs”=reinforcer 2.) What did Guthrie and Horton find when they photographed cats in their box?  How did they attempt to account for their results? the photographs revealed that after a few trials, each cat settled on a  particular method of manipulating the pole that was quite consistent from trial  to trial, however, different subject developed a variety of methods for moving  the pole; developed a stereotyped method of operating the pole  After their subjects mastered the task, there was relatively little variability  form trial to trial for a given subject; but considerable variability occurred  between subjects stop-action principle: the precise movements being performed  at the moment  of reinforcer delivery will be strengthened and be more likely to occur in the  future o For each cat, whatever random behavior happened to get reinforced a  few times would become dominant over other behaviors 3.) Briefly describe Skinner’s experiment on “superstition” in pigeons, and his  explanation of the results. Superstition experiment
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o Each pigeon was placed in a separate experimental chamber in which  grain was presented ever 15 seconds regardless of what the pigeon  was doing o After some time, Skinner observed that six of his eight subjects had  developed clearly defined behaviors that they performed repeatedly  between food presentations o These behaviors occurred repeatedly despite the fact that no behavior  was required for reinforcement According to Skinner, these distinctive behaviors developed because  whatever behavior happened to be occurring when the reinforcer was  delivered was strengthened o the accidental strengthening process is self-perpetuating, because 
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYC 103 taught by Professor Pearlberg during the Fall '07 term at UCSD.

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Psyc 103 Exam II Study Guide - Psyc 103 Exam II Study Guide...

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