Quiz 2 Questions

Quiz 2 Questions - Quiz 2 Questions 11/7/2007 11:37:00 AM...

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Quiz 2 Questions 07/11/2007 14:37:00 1.) What did Guthrie and Horton find when they photographed cats in their puzzle  box? After cats mastered the task, was there behavioral variability from trial to trial for  the average cat? Was there variability in behavior between cats? Why? (pg. 120-123) the photographs revealed that after a few trials, each cat settled on a  particular method of manipulating the pole that was quite consistent from trial  to trial, however, different subject developed a variety of methods for moving  the pole; developed a stereotyped method of operating the pole o example: one cat would always push the pole with its nose, and  another would always rub the pole with its nose, and another would lie  down next to the pole and roll over into it After their subjects mastered the task, there was relatively little variability form  trial to trial for a given subject; but considerable variability occurred between  subjects For each cat, whatever random behavior happened to get reinforced a few  times would become dominant over other behaviors 2.) Give ONE example of an individual superstition, and ONE of a superstition  held by many people. Under what sort of conditions are these two types of superstitions  likely to develop, according to Herrnstein (1966)? (pg. 123-125) individual-a bowler who released a ball down the alley, but continues to  behave as if he was controlling it by twisting and turning his arm and shoulder societal-the belief that it is bad luck to walk under a ladder, or that the number  13 is unlucky individual-whatever behavior to be occurring when the reinforcer was  delivered was strengthened; the accidental strengthening process is self- perpetuating, because once any one behavior develops a somewhat higher  frequency of occurrence than all other behaviors, it has a greater chance of  being reinforced, which increases its frequency still further o some behavior is needed to complete the task, there is no requirement  that the subject has to use the same motion each time o personalized superstitions arise out of an individual’s own experience  with reinforcement societal-probably acquired through communication with others, not through  individual experience; may be the residue of previous contingencies of  reinforcement that are no longer in effect
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o may be perpetuated by stories of occasional individuals who violate the  rule and meet with an unfortunate fate
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYC 103 taught by Professor Pearlberg during the Fall '07 term at UCSD.

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Quiz 2 Questions - Quiz 2 Questions 11/7/2007 11:37:00 AM...

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