Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Synapse, Methods Review session: Sunday 5-6pm...

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Synapse, Methods 16/04/2007 19:02:00 Review session: Sunday 5-6pm 50 multiple choice reading: Ch. 1-4 know handout for exam Deeper Brain Structures limbic system-motivated behaviors and emotion (eating, sexual activity,  aggression, anxiety, etc.): olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, amygdala,  hippocampus, cingulate gyrus (perception of pain) o hippocampus (hpc)-important for storing certain forms of memory o basal ganglia- caudate, putamen, globus pallidus voluntary movement many connections with frontal lobe impaired in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease o basal forebrain- nucleus basalis; acetylcholine (Ach) neurons that  synapse with large areas of cortex important for arousal, attention patients with Alzheimer’s have profound deterioration here Spinal cord Protected by vertebra and meninges Each segment has spinal nerves which innervate portion of body 2 branches follow Bell-Megendie Law o sensory roots (axons bundles, afferent) enter dorsally
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dorsal root ganglia-cell bodies of sensory neurons gathered  outside of spinal cord o motor roots (efferent) exit ventrally (cell bodies in spinal cord) structure of the vertebrate nervous system  o the spinal cord is comprised of: grey matter-in the center of the spinal cord, densely packed with  cell bodies and dendrites white matter-composed mostly of myelinated axons that carries  info from the gray  matter to the brain or other areas of the  spinal cord o each segment sends sensory information to the brain and receives  motor commands Review Resting potential-negative inside (-70mV) Graded potentials Action potentials How does action potential arise? Threshold near axon hillock (AH), voltage- gated Na+ channels open Why does it propagate? Axon “Area 1” experiences AP  positive charge  diffuses (like graded potential) to neighboring location (then salutatory  conduction if myelinated axon) Overview of electrical-to-chemical signaling Chemical that sends ‘message’ across the synapse is a neurotransmitter Steps: o Action potential arrives at terminal (pre-synaptic cell) o Release of neurotransmitter into synapse o Next cell (postsynaptic cell) receives neurotransmitter o Neurotransmitter causes electrical change in post-synaptic cell (via ion  channels)
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How do post-synaptic cells respond? o Post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) Excitatory PSP (EPSP) graded potential, depolarizing; may lead  to action potential (if brings membrane potential to threshold (- 55mV) at axon hillock) Inhibitory PSP (IPSP)-graded potential, hyperpolarizing,  suppresses action potential (from K+ leaving, or Cl- entering)
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSYC 106 taught by Professor Sage during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 3 - Synapse, Methods Review session: Sunday 5-6pm...

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