Depression and Schizophrenia Sleep

Depression and Schizophrenia Sleep - L7: Depression and...

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L7: Depression and Schizophrenia Sleep 04/06/2007 19:00:00 Review: Learning and Memory  Historical milestones (Lashley, Pavlov, patient HM) Characteristics of amnesia (retrograde, anterograde, explicit vs. implicit  memories) Medial temporal lobe structures Alzheimer’s, Korsakoff’s disease Animal models of amnesia: DNMS in monkeys, radial and water mazes in  rodents, Pavlovian fear conditioning in rodents Cellular mechanisms: LTP Review: addiction Historical perspective on addiction in the US (opiates, cocaine) Nucleus accumbens, dopamine pathways Withdrawal and sensitization Craving and relapse Alcohol abuse Substance abuse and addictions Other behaviors that release dopamine include sexual excitement, gambling,  and video games fMRI research indicates dopamine is released during viewing of “attractive”  people nucleus accumbens activity as related to attractiveness ratings (by  heterosexual male) o high activity for beautiful female and average male o low activity for average female and beautiful male Alcohol abuse and treatment
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After alcohol consumption, enzymes in the liver metabolize it into a poisonous  substance called acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde is converted by the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into  acetic acid, a chemical that the body can use as a source of energy Antabuse (disulfiram) works by antagonizing the effects of acetaldehyde  dehydrogenase Accumulation of acetaldehyde results in sickness  decrease wanting alcohol? Alcohol abuse and treatment Most studies suggest that Antabuse has been only moderately effective When effective, it supplements the alcoholic’s own commitment to quit Daily routine of pill ingestion may reaffirm commitment not to drink But many quit taking the pill and continue to drink Ch. 15 Depression onset is occurring earlier Americans are developing major depression at high rates and younger ages  than previously Major (clinical) depression 1. Most of the day, nearly everyday for weeks at a time have: o depressed mood o loss of interest/pleasure in almost all activities 2. 3 of the following nearly everyday: o significant weight loss or gain o insomnia or hypersomnia o little energy o worthlessness or guilt
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o difficulty concentrating o recurrent thoughts of death/suicide similar symptoms can result from other things like hormonal problems, head  injuries, brain tumors or other illnesses often occurs with other disorders: schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s absence of happiness is a more reliable symptom than increase sadness women 2 times more than men (after puberty)
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Depression and Schizophrenia Sleep - L7: Depression and...

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