Humanities Note All Part 2

Humanities Note All Part 2 - The Etruscans Chronology:...

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The Etruscans Chronology : Etruscans 900-509 BC, last king overthrown Roman Republic 509-31 BC, Battle of Actium (or 27 BC “Augustus”) Age of Augustus 31 BC-14 AD, the Golden Age of Rome, Pax Romana Roman Empire 31 BC-476 AD, Odoacer becomes Emperor of Rome Villanovans Earliest people in Italy The Etruscans: Precursors of the Romans o During late Dark Ages, archaic time period of Greece o Different people because they had their own language aside from Latin speaking people o Did a lot of trading with the Greeks o Etruscans loved Greek art o Pirates just like Greeks were o Had contact all over Mediterranean, particularly eastern Mediterranean o Had city states that were ruled by kings o United by their common language and had their own alphabet that is still obscure and needs to be completely deciphered. Because of this, the Etruscans still remain mysterious to us, much of the history is speculative o Most of the tombs still intact because they built in the hills Herodotus recounts Lydian origins of the Etruscans o He said they came from Asia Minor o Said this because the columns in the tombs looked like very early archaic style Ionic columns Southern Italy: Greek colonies o Cities located 3 miles inland on a small hill or stream, they were city- states o They would rebuild on top of the same cities if they were ever destroyed Necropolis (Necropoleis) o City of the dead o Always constructed away from the city of the living Tumulus: carved out of tufa (volcanic rock) o The word ‘tomb’ comes from this word o Tufa is easy to carve to create tombs, and then the spaces that are exposed to the are becomes hard o Tombs carved like Etruscan houses with support columns and beams and holding everything that was needed for daily life o Many tombs showed women o Spaces in the tomb for dead bodies
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o Loculi, what the dead bodies were called o Lots of movement in their artwork, one of the legacies to the Romans o Greeks were thinkers, Romans were doers o Etruscans noted for their modesty, they are clothed in their art o Etruscans are the ones who originated the toga, and then the Romans took their idea Aeolic capitals: early Ionic style, influence of Asia Minor, Lydia Sarcophagus (Sarcophagi) o Sarcophagus means “flesh-eater” o Some made out of terracotta o Coffin designed to be like a dining couch in which a husband and wife dined together, something that you wouldn’t see in other cultures o Forced to always eat with your right hand Terracotta o Clay o Can be modeled, doesn’t have to be carved Position of Women o Had a higher place in Etruscan civilization o Romans took this and did not seclude women like Athenians did o Seems to be a stable, affluent, peaceful people Sculptures: acroterion (high places); sense of energy, vitality, movement o Acroterion: sculptures on top of a temple o Lots of motion, very dynamic, moving forward o Bronze sculptures melted down in time for war to make weapons o Sculptures show detail
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Humanities Note All Part 2 - The Etruscans Chronology:...

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