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Basic Modes of Argument

Basic Modes of Argument - explain the tire tracks Therefore...

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Basic Modes of Argument Mode of Argument Nature of Support Evaluating Support Example Deductive Negation of conclusion contradicts premises Valid? Arnold Schwarzenegger is not a natural born citizen of the United States. Only naturally born citizens of the United States are eligible to be President of the United States. Therefore Arnold Schwarzenegger is not eligible to be President. Reliability Conclusion is the output of a reliable process Defeating conditions? It says in the Britannica that Indonesia is the fourth most populous country. The Britannica is a reliable source of information. Therefore, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country. Abductive Inferred hypothesis explains the facts Explanation of facts compared to competing hypotheses? Tire tracks run from the road onto a lawn to a knocked-down mailbox. If the mailbox had been knocked down by a motor vehicle, that fact would
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Unformatted text preview: explain the tire tracks. Therefore, the mailbox was probably knocked down by a motor vehicle. Analogical Analogy with something known Relevant dissimilarities? Cheating and surreptitiously changing your grade in the instructor’s grade book are morally analogous. Surreptitiously changing your grade in the instructor’s grade book is wrong. Therefore, cheating is wrong. Deontic Application of a principle Justified exception? Students should not violate the Honor Code, other things being equal. If you cheat, you’ll violate the Honor Code. Therefore, you shouldn’t cheat. Utilitarian Value of projected consequences Value of projected consequences compared to alternative courses of action? If you cheat, you might get caught. Getting caught would be bad. Therefore, you shouldn’t cheat....
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