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Plant Biology notes 2-18-08

Plant Biology notes 2-18-08 - organism 2 The molecule must...

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Nucleic Acids DNA + RNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Genes are encoded into dna. Both polymers of nucleotides…..nucleotides are (have three parts) 1) phosphate 2) 5 carbon sugar (monosaccharide) C5 3) Nitrogenous base DNA vs RNA 1) P 1) P 2) Deoxyribose C5 2)Ribose C5H10O4 C5H10O5 3) Adenine 3) Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil Guanine Cytosine Thymine (p26 text book) Sugar—N base = N base—Sugar ( ) Phosphate P ( ) S—N base = N base—Sugar ( ) P P Double stranded molecule = double helix of DNA C = G A = T T = A G = C Watson and Crick discovered the double helix structure of DNA Important Properties of DNA that should be reflected in its molecular structure: 1. The molecule must carry “genetic information” (and a lot of it, ie., it must contain the instructions (genes) for the complete development and functioning of an organism)
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Unformatted text preview: organism) 2. The molecule must copy itself (replicate) precisely. 3. Changes in genes (mutations) sometimes occur; the molecular structure should ”allow for” or help to explain such changes. Aspects of DNA structure known prior to Watson and Crick’s work: 1. The DNA molecule is very large 2. It is composed of nucleotides 3. The molecule’s structure is “orderly”; possibly a helix 4. Within a DNA molecule, A=T, and G=C. Discovery of the double helix laid the foundation to the study of molecular biology. Base pairs make up the steps of the helix (the rungs of the ladder) The code is read in base triplets. Three letters at a time. GTA codes for one amino acid. Smallest DNA molecules contain 5000 base pairs. Some have 3Million base pairs. 200billion in a lilly....
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