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Unformatted text preview: Emerging Infections :--infections that are jut coming out and are new, emerging in the past five years--infections that have only been in one area, not worldwide--haven't reached an epidemic level--caused by a new pathogen (an emergent infection agent). May cause new symptoms or have new modes of transmission. ex: avian flu Re-emerging:--infections that are re-occuring, and are similar to other infections--spread rapidly--ones that scientists thought were under control ex: cholera, flu, AIDs, staph, mumps Infectious: microorganisms that cause infections Communicable: Transmissible : spread from place to place, place to host, or individual to individual vector: something that can contain a disease and spread it (usually small animal) that does not get infected EX mosquitoes in malaria agent: microorganism that causes infections host: whoever's infected (usually humans) TRIANGLE MODEL morbidity : a state that is not healthy, prevalence of sickness/disease/illness mortality: death incidence: infections within a specific time frame, the number of new cases within a population, can be measured by weeks, months or years prevalence: measures what's there, the number of existing cases within a population in a certain month primary prevention: the first steps you take to prevent diseases that are emerging/re-emerging, steps you take to prevent people from getting infections, more cost effective and prevents the introduction of new infections EX: immunization improved health structure prudent antimicrobial usage secondary prevention : after a population has been exposed to a disease, aimed at early clinical recognition and prompt intervention EX: mitigation of societal variables global surveillance better diagnostic facilities Health : the absence of disease disease/injury/disability/harm, when all aspects of the body are in balance, physical and mental well-being DALY: the amount of time someone lives with a disabilty Virulence : measure of pathogenicity Avirulence : a pathogen that won't cause disease and is not transmissible Pathogenicity : how likely something is to cause disease Life Modelfollow the order (zandee) Prions : infection protein, simple structure, proteinaceous infectious particle, alters the folding of the protein Viruse s: non-living, nucleic acid plus protein coat (capsid). They cannot reproduce, prokaryotic and are bigger then prions. They can be inactivated by disrupting protein coat. Bacteria : Living and prokaroytic. More complex then prions and viruses and bigger in structure. TWO TYPES OF BACTERIA: Eubacteria-all bacteria except archae bacteria, all pathogens. Archaebacteria-bacteria that lives in weird environments. They can live in hot springs, artic, Dead Sea....
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- Spring '08