Study Guide for Bio Midterm 1

Study Guide for Bio Midterm 1 - LIFE EUKARYOTES evolved...

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LIFE EUKARYOTES : evolved from prokaryotes 2 billion years ago, has a nucleus and endomembrane that are a result of the infoldings of the plasma membrane, mitochondria and chloroplasts ANIMALIA- Porifera- sponges are the simplest, have no true tissue, flagellated choanocytes filter food from water passing through a porous body, radially symmetrical True Tissues: Cnidaria- radial with tentacles and stinging cells, simplest animal with true tissue, painful stings ( jellyfish, sea anemone) , only 2 cell layers produced during gastrulation, has a gastrovascular cavity that circulates gas and ingests food, shapes of: polyp-hydra, medusae-jellyfish Protostomes : have gastrular opening lead to mouth Platyhelminthes- flatworms ,” simplest, bilateral animal, no body cavity (acoelomic), the mouth is the only opening for gastrovascular activity Flukes & Tapeworms- parasitic with complex life cycles, have intermediate host Annelida- segmented bodies give added mobility for swimming and burrowing earthworms - eat their way through soil and have a closed circulatory system leeches- free living carnivores, suck blood Arthropoda- largely related to their segmentation, exoskeletons, and jointed appendages, rigidity on outer body, different regions Arachnida- terrestrial and carnivorous, 8 legs, spiders, scorpions, and dust mites Crustacea- nearly all aquatic, shrimp, lobsters Myriapod- segmented Millipedes- 4 legs, detriivores-dead organic matter, nasty chem defenses, slow moving Centipedes- 2 legs, painful bites, carnivores Insecta- most diverse group of organisms? 3 part body w/ head, thorax, & abdomen; 3 sets of legs, usually with wings, undergo (in)complete metamorphosis Orthoptera- grasshoppers, crickets, incomplete metamorphosis, 2 pairs of wings Odonata- dragonflies, carnivorous Hemiptera- bedbugs, plant bugs, stinkbugs, “water striders” Coleoptera - beetles, complete metamorphosis Lepidoptera - moths & butterflies, complete metamorphosis Diptera - flies & mosquitos Hymenoptera- ants, bees, & wasps Nematoda- roundworms, pseudocoelem and a complete digestive tract, covered by protective cuticle, can live inside body, free living in soil Mollusca- variations on a common body plan, but have a muscular foot and mantle which may secrete a shell that encloses visceral mass Gastropoda- “stomach foot,” largest group, includes snails and slugs, has one shell, foot, and a radula Bivalves- include clams , oysters, mussels, scallops, have two shells and siphon, sessile Cephalopoda- “head foot,” agile predators, include squids and octopuses , have siphon, tentacle, vertebrate like eyes, include largest invertebrate: Giant Squid, extreme behavioral complexity Deuterostomes: have gastrular opening lead to anus Protista- paraphyletic, a diverse collection of eukaryotes, almost everywhere with water, cells have membrane enclosed nucleus, flagella and cilia to move, mostly unicellular Protozoa- heterotrophic, eat bacteria and other protests, include Euglena (pond water, 1-2 flagella, photosynthetic, absorb nutrients as heterotrophs in the dark) which causes diseases.
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