bio 109 final review - Review questions are not listed in...

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Review questions are not listed in any particular order. GOOD LUCK!!! 1. Who [which groups] and what are the Amniotes? Amniotes are a group that have an embryo that develops within a protective, fluid filled sac called the amnion. Groups that are included in that are mammalia and reptilia. 2. Who [which groups] and what are the Tetrapods? Tetrapods are jawed vertebrates with limbs and feet that can support their weight on land. They include amphibia and amniota (mammals and reptiles). 3. What groups are included in the Primates? a. lorises, lemurs, and pottos; relatively primitive b. tarsiers: second, relatively primitive and not widely distributed group of primates c. Anthropoid s: include Old World Monkeys (baboons, downward nose), New World Monkeys ( marmosets, upward noses, prehensile tails), apes, and humans, had opposable thumbs i. Homonoids: apes gibbons: smallest, lightest, and most acrobatic of apes orangutan: shy, solitary, lives in rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo Gorilla : largest ape, more closely related to humans than to other apes Chimpanzee: knuckle walkers, more closely related to humans than to other apes ( bonobo ) 3. Who are our closest relatives among the primates? Chimpanzees and bonobos 4. What are the traits (physical and cultural in correct order) that are associated with human evolution. Would an Australopithecine share all these traits (if not, which ones would be). a. Physical: ? b. Cultural: stone tools arose about 2 mya, use of fire about 400,000 years ago, construction of shelters about 200,000 years ago, language about 50-60,000 years ago, art about 50,000 years ago, and music at least 7,000 years ago, and writing about 5 thousand years ago. c. They would share the characteristic of bipedalism. 5. Know the major Biomes and be able to identify their correct order from pole to pole. -tropical forests: occur in equatorial areas where the temperature is warm and days are 11-12 hours long year round -rainfall is scarce or there is a prolonged dry season then tropical dry forests
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dominate - tropical rain forests : are found in very humid equatorial areas where rainfall is abundant -soils of tropical rainforests are usually poor tundra: northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes -dwarf shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens, encircles the North Pole -brief, warm summers; permafrost desert: driest of all terrestrial biomes, characterized by low and unpredictable rainfall -desert animals are adapted to drought and extreme temperatures -plants expand when the absorb water and have a great number of seeds savanna: a biome dominated by grasses and scattered trees; dry and warm -frequent fires, caused by lightning or human activity, and grazing animals inhibit further tree invasion -grasses and forbs, giraffes, cheetahs, etc *order: polar ice, tundra, coniferous forests, temperate grasslands, temperate broadleaf forests, deserts, chaparral, savanna, tropical rainforests 6. What outline of questions did Niko Tinbergen pose for ethologists?
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