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lecture outlines for posting5

lecture outlines for posting5 - Lecture 5 EEB 13 22 January...

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Lecture 5 – EEB 13 – 22 January 2008 Dr. Hespenheide “Evolution of life” – What does it mean to be “alive”? huge variety of life lifestyles among organisms, from simplest (bacteria) to most complex (humans, insects) along scala naturae definitions of life therefore difficult - what life is/does - ours: Life = self-reproducing chemical systems [3] heredity [1] molecules [2] cells 1. chemicals = molecules - chemistry of life immensely complex (hence, Behe’s “irreducible complexity”) - chemistry of life = chemistry of Carbon (C) - takes place in water solutions basic (bio)chemical reaction [b] energy [a] A + B C + D [c] enzyme – three things needed a. reacting chemicals - “nutrients”: these must especially contain C, Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), but also others how to acquire nutrients a basic problem for organisms b. energy – reactions require energy take place how to acquire energy a basic problem for organisms - the source of energy and nutrients may come from the same food items c. enzymes – reduce the amount of energy needed for reactions - enzymes are proteins, coded for by genetic material/genes - four major groups of biological molecules – all macro molecules - large [i. lipids – used as cell membranes, fats, hormones, etc .]
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- 3 groups of polymers – large molecules formed as chains of smaller molecules - condensation reaction forms polymer by removing water molecules (from two monomers H + OH, or H 2 O) A -H + B -OH A-B + H 2 O monomers polymer + water - condensation reaction can be reversed by hydrolysis reaction – water (hydro-) used to break up (-lysis) the polymer [ii. carbohydrates (C H 2 O)n – used as energy source and in structures monomers are monosaccharides or sugars, polymers are polysaccharides most important sugar is glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) or (C H 2 O) 6 - glucose is product of photosynthesis and is energy source for all living organisms *iii. proteins – enzymes, made of C, H, O, and N - gene products *iv. nucleic acids – genetic material, made of C, H, O, N and
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