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lecture outlines for posting11

# lecture outlines for posting11 - Lecture 11 EEB 13 14...

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Lecture 11 - EEB 13 - 14 February 2008* Dr. Hespenheide [*Note: Feb 14 is Thomas Malthus’ 242nd birthday anniversary. There may be an extra-credit question on the final exam about this…] Microevolution - 3. natural selection - environment includes 3. members of own population - affect reproductive success sexual selection - natural selection involved in mating kin selection - your genes get to the next generation by your reproduction and reproduction by relatives (“kin”) inclusive [total] fitness = [own fitness] + [fitness thru’ relatives/kin] - where fitness = [# offspring] x [proportion of shared genes] - proportion of shared genes = coefficient of kinship (Shoumatoff) calculation of coefficients of kinship - How to do it? - of parents to children = 1/2 [note: this proportion is a certainty] - of sibling to sibling in sexual diploid organisms - more complex proportion of genes estimated to be - shared through mother = (1/2) x (1/2) = 1/4 - shared through father = (1/2) x (1/2) = 1/4 - total shared (coefficient of kinship) = 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2 [note: this is an average or probability: it can be anything from 0 to 1 (identical twins) but will usually be close to 1/2] - coefficients of kinship can be calculated for any other relative - example, of sibling (you) to sibling’s (brother’s/sister’s) child (your niece/nephew) = (1/2) x (1/2) = 1/4 kin selection - selection of kinship groups (families), not individuals thus, true altruism - doing something at cost to your own fitness to increase another’s fitness is rare; usually it is

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