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Essay ADiscuss the role of technological innovation in two or more ancient societies. You might focus on writing, metallurgy, agriculture, and means of transportation.Although both Mesopotamian and Egyptian ancient societies had different geographical circumstances, they both developed similar technologies independently. Mesopotamia (chapter 2) –Tigris and Euphrates riversa.Writing:i.Cuneiform became standard: reed stylus (wedge shaped) was pressed in the clay, then bakedii.Developed for commerce and tax recordsiii. Education was for scribes and government officials only early oniv.Literature in astronomy, math, and literature / religious tales (Gilgamesh)—by this time, many people can read and writev.Hammurabi’s code written everywhereb.Metallurgyi.First: bronze (copper and tin) weapons and agricultural toolsii.Assyrians had iron weapons, chariots, archers ~1300 BCEiii. Iron became readily and cheaply available ~1000 BCEc.Agriculturei.Little rain, so they developed irrigation early, on a small scale ~6000 BCEii.This lead to increased food supply increases, population increases, migration increases, cities pop upiii. Bronze toolsd.Transportationi.Wheel ~3500 BCEii.Assyrians brought chariotsiii. Advanced in shipbuilding, developing trade routesAfrica—Egypt and Nubia (chapter 3)—Nile Rivere.Writing
i.Hieroglyphics found in pyramids and papyrus ~3200 BCEii.Hieratic is the everyday style, appears ~2600-600 BCEiii. Demotic and Coptic scripts adapted Greek writingiv.Scribes had good livesv.Nubia advanced Egyptian writingf.Metallurgyi.When Hyksos invade, they used and introduced bronze weapons and chariotsii.Copper and tin were expensive because of rarityiii. Iron develops independently in Sudaniv.Iron development in Bantu tribes greatly increases their migrations because they can now clear more landg.Agriculturei.Area used to be grassy steppe, climate change forced people to go to Nile areasii.Dealing with annual floodsiii. Easier in Egypt, harder in Nubia due to flood patternsh.Transportationi.Chariots of the Hyksos invadersii.Sailboats, carts, donkey caravansiii. One could travel up and down Nile; downhill by gravity, uphill by sailiv.Bantus used canoes along rivers in west-central AfricaEssay BWrite an essay on the ways in which geographical factors influence the political institutions and economic development of two or three of the ancient societies we have studied.Because most of the ancient civilizations grew around major rivers, there is a definite tie between the river politics and economics of the civilizations. Politically, the river served as a barrier to---. Economically, the river served as a means of transport for goods and trade—Egypt.
Mesopotamia•Politics: •Economics: Egypt•Politics:•Economics:Essay CCompare the mythological systems of two or more different ancient societies.