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midterm review

midterm review - Essay A Discuss the role of technological...

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Essay A Discuss the role of technological innovation in two or more ancient societies. You might focus on writing, metallurgy, agriculture, and means of transportation. Although both Mesopotamian and Egyptian ancient societies had different geographical circumstances, they both developed similar technologies independently. Mesopotamia (chapter 2) –Tigris and Euphrates rivers a. Writing: i. Cuneiform became standard: reed stylus (wedge shaped) was pressed in the clay, then baked ii. Developed for commerce and tax records iii. Education was for scribes and government officials only early on iv. Literature in astronomy, math, and literature / religious tales (Gilgamesh)—by this time, many people can read and write v. Hammurabi’s code written everywhere b. Metallurgy i. First: bronze (copper and tin) weapons and agricultural tools ii. Assyrians had iron weapons, chariots, archers ~1300 BCE iii. Iron became readily and cheaply available ~1000 BCE c. Agriculture i. Little rain, so they developed irrigation early, on a small scale ~6000 BCE ii. This lead to increased food supply increases, population increases, migration increases, cities pop up iii. Bronze tools d. Transportation i. Wheel ~3500 BCE ii. Assyrians brought chariots iii. Advanced in shipbuilding, developing trade routes Africa—Egypt and Nubia (chapter 3)—Nile River e. Writing
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i. Hieroglyphics found in pyramids and papyrus ~3200 BCE ii. Hieratic is the everyday style, appears ~2600-600 BCE iii. Demotic and Coptic scripts adapted Greek writing iv. Scribes had good lives v. Nubia advanced Egyptian writing f. Metallurgy i. When Hyksos invade, they used and introduced bronze weapons and chariots ii. Copper and tin were expensive because of rarity iii. Iron develops independently in Sudan iv. Iron development in Bantu tribes greatly increases their migrations because they can now clear more land g. Agriculture i. Area used to be grassy steppe, climate change forced people to go to Nile areas ii. Dealing with annual floods iii. Easier in Egypt, harder in Nubia due to flood patterns h. Transportation i. Chariots of the Hyksos invaders ii. Sailboats, carts, donkey caravans iii. One could travel up and down Nile; downhill by gravity, uphill by sail iv. Bantus used canoes along rivers in west-central Africa Essay B Write an essay on the ways in which geographical factors influence the political institutions and economic development of two or three of the ancient societies we have studied. Because most of the ancient civilizations grew around major rivers, there is a definite tie between the river politics and economics of the civilizations. Politically, the river served as a barrier to---. Economically, the river served as a means of transport for goods and trade— Egypt.
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Mesopotamia Politics: Economics: Egypt Politics: Economics: Essay C Compare the mythological systems of two or more different ancient societies.
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