E3review - Adrenal gland; functions of adrenal medulla and...

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Adrenal gland; functions of adrenal medulla and cortex; response to stress; adrenal gland diseases (Physiology Col. Book Plates 125-128) Adrenal glands and stress response Know parts of the adrenal gland - adrenal medulla in the center -releases catecholamines -acts as extension of the sympathetic nervous system - zona glomerulosa outermost layer of the adrenal cortex -releases mineralocorticoids (regulates plasma salts) - zona fasiculata : cells in little spheres/fascicles; like bubbles -the largest of the cortical zones -releases glucocorticoids -called “gluco” steroids because regulates metabolism of glucose, especially in times of stress - zona reticularis: -innermost layer of the cortex -releases sex steroids (mostly androgens) Which part secretes catecholamines and which steroids? -adrenal medulla releases catecholamines- biogenic amines derived from Tyrosine -cortex releases steroid hormones—all derived from cholesterol Which part is an extension of the sympathetic nervous system? How is this part modified to be a gland? -adrenal medulla can essentially be viewed as a modified sympathetic ganglion -it is a modified gland: -hormone releasing chromaffin cells are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system -while sympathetic postganglia only release norepinephrine (NE), the medulla secretes both NE and epinephrine (E) What are the parts (zones) of the adrenal cortex? -outermost: zona glomerulosa secretes aldosterone - aldosterone : mineralocorticoid; regulates plasma salt levels (Na+, K+), blood pressure and blood volume -middle: zona fasiculata secretes glucocorticoid hormones, primarily cortisol - cortisol : regulates metabolism of glucose, especially in times of stress -innermost: zona reticularis : secretes sex steroids , primarily androgens
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Is there an anatomic connection between adrenal cortex and the kidneys? How about a physiological connection? -no anatomical connection between the adrenal cortex and the kidneys - aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa acts on the kidneys to promote Na+ reabsorption (water follows by osmosis) Adrenal Medulla. What general term do we apply to the hormones of the adrenal medulla? -catecholamines! Which original amino acid is used for synthesis of the hormones of the adrenal medulla? -Tyrosine! Know how effects of epinephrine on lipolysis, glycogenolysis, vasodilation in muscles, bronchiole dilation and vasoconstriction in periphery (kidney, skin) and pupils of the eye -- help the animal in fight and flight responses and in strenuous physical stresses (1) increased heart activity (2) vasodilation in muscle (3) bronchiole dilation (4) glycogenolysis (liver) (5) lioplysis (adipose tissue) (6) brain arousal (7) pupil dilation (to increase peripheral vision) (8) increased BMR (9) vasoconstriction in skin, kidney, digestive tract and spleen (directs blood toward muscles, heart and brain) (10) blood clotting (in case animal is hurt) (11) blood pressure rise Are there any differences in the effects of epinephrine compared to norepinephrine? -norepinephrine:
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E3review - Adrenal gland; functions of adrenal medulla and...

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