lab final - Experiment 1: Cellular Organelles Sizes: Seen...

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Experiment 1: Cellular Organelles Sizes: Seen by naked eye (.2mm, 200um) Ameoba (.5mm) Xenopus Oocyte (1.1 mm) Light Microscope (.2um, 200nm) Organelles (10um-100um) E. Coli (2um) Electron Microscope (.2nm) Molecules (.2nm-100nm) Ribosomes (20nm) Viruses (10nm-100nm) Can’t see Atoms Microscopes: Confocal: illumination from laser, focuses on one depth at a time Flourescent: similar to light, ease please TEM: beam of electrons, thin and in vacuum SEM: 3nm-20nm, 3-D surface Cellular Organelles: Rough ER: has ribosomes, and is responsible for synthesizing proteins for export like ECM, membrane, and organelles Smooth ER: prevalent in hepatocytes, where it has ability to modify and detoxify carcinogens and pesticides inside the cell, synthesizes lipids and membrane proteins Golgi Apparatus: connected in cis to ER, consists of membrane bound organelles of stacks of membrane bound vesicles called cistarnae, vesicles form at trans end, give function to peroxisomes, lysosomes, and secretory vesicles using specific enzymes, the endoplasmic reticulum is an extension of the outer nuclear membrane Centrosomes: produces microtubules, not in plant cells Cytoskeleton: composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments, cortex is made up of actin just below surface of plasma membrane that provides structural support Microfilaments: -consist of monomeric actin, provide structural support and motility, involved in contractile ring in mitosis Microtubules: -hollow tubes made up of alpha and beta tubulin dimmers, adds faster to plus end which is the beta end, provide structural support, separate chromosomes, involved in motility Intermediate Filaments: -larger than microfilaments, smaller than microtubules, made up of many proteins (lamins, keratins, desmins, and vimentins), provide structural support to nuclear membrane, and important to cell adhesion, no motility function Mitochondria: have two membranes, inner is cristae which provides more surface area, may have evolved from prokaryotes, oxidizative phosphorylation provides energy, have own DNA Chloroplasts: produce ATP, have own DNA, made up of stacks of thylakoids called grana, enveloped by stroma, thylakoid membranes contain green pigment chlorophylls that absorb sunlight
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Vesicles: Lysosomes: -use acidic pH to degrade polymers to monomers, not really found in plant cells because of large vacuole, usually inactive at neutral pH so it is alright if lysosomes lyse (abestosis and rheumatoid arthritis can result), more diseases can result from lack of lysosomes (Tay-Sachs and Inclusion Cell Disease) Peroxisomes: -contain hydrogen peroxide, which degrades membrane components and fatty acids Secretory Vesicles: -secrete hormones into the extracellular environment Vacuole: in animal cells it functions in intracellular digestions and removal of cell waste, in plant cells that vacuole has more functions including the normal functions carried out by the lysosome, storage of water, nutrients and ions, and it provides rigidity
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lab final - Experiment 1: Cellular Organelles Sizes: Seen...

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