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Unformatted text preview: Psych Notes Ch 1 04/09/2007 10:52:00 ← The scientific study of human development- the science that seeks to understand the ways in which people change and remain the same as they grow older. • Life Span Perspective- a view of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood. o –Multidirectional-development, referring to it nonlinear progression- gains and losses, compensations and deficits, predictable and unexpected changes. Dynamic, not static Butterfly Effect- idea that a small axn or event may set off series of changes that culminate in a major event o-Multicontextual- referring to the fact that each human life takes place within a number of contexts-historical, cultural, and socioeconomic. Historical Context-cohort=group of people whose shared birth year, or decade, means that they travel through live together, experiencing the same major historical changes. Social Construction-an idea that is built more on shared perceptions of social order than on objective reality. Socioeconomic Context- socioeconomic status- family income, educational level, place of residence, occupation, and other variables. Collective Efficacy- neighbors creating a functioning, informal network of care and concern. Cultural context- culture=specific manifestations of a social group’s design for living, developed over the years to provide a social structure for the group. • –Multicultural-development takes place within many cultural settings worldwide and thus reflects various values, traditions, and tools for living. o Ethnic Group- group shares certain attributes, ancestral heritage, national origin, religion, customs, language. o Race- biological traits(hair/skin color, facial features, body type) used to differentiate people whose ancestors came from various regions of the world. • –Multidisciplinary-dozens of academic disciplines contribute data and insight to science of development. • –Plasticity- individuals, including personalities, bodies, and minds change throughout life span. ← The Scientific Method • Formulate a Research Question, develop a hypothesis(a specific prediction that can be tested), test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, and make the findings available(through replication-same procedures on other group of participants to verify results) • Correlation- exists between two variables if one variable is more(or less) likely to occur when the other occurs. o Experiment- researcher tries to determine the cause and effect relationship between two variables by manipulating oe variable(called independent variable) and then observing and recording the resulting...
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- Spring '08
- The American, Theory of cognitive development