Brian Champagne 1/28/07 Annotated Bibliography on Clinical Test of Brain Death Youngner, J. Stuart, Arnold, Robert, and Renie Schapiro. The Definition of Death: Contemporary Controversies . Maryland: John Hopkins University Press, 1999, pgs. 38-49. The chapter Clinical Standards and Confirmatory Tests explains holistically the confirmatory tests used to determine whether a patient can be considered brain dead or not. The chapter indicates that the Apnea test and the EEG test are the most important sources of evidence, but other manual test are also preformed to confirm death. These include tests for functioning of the brain stem and heart as well as a variety of reflexes. Some tests for the brain stem include a pupil test, oculocephalic reflex test and a jaw pain test. Cardiac diagnostic findings must indicate no spontaneous or responsive cranial nerve activity after stimuli is delivered to any part of the body. A negative Apnea test is a significant indicator of irreversibly damaged brain stem function. An Angiography can
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