Chapter26_2008Urinary - Chapter 26: The Urinary System I....

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Chapter 26:  The Urinary System I.  The Urinary System: A.Functions Homeostatic Organs: maintain internal constancy of fluids Filter: 200 L of fluid from bloodstream Excretion:  wastes, excess ions Gluconeogenesis: during fasting Endocrine Glands: produce renin (BP regulation), erythropoietin (RBCs) B.Organs Kidneys :  form urine Urinary bladder :  temporary storage reservoir for urine Ureters:   pair of tube-like organs that transport urine from kidney to bladder Urethra :  unpaired tube that connects bladder to outside of body II. Kidney Anatomy:  A. Location and macroscopic anatomy of kidney Location:  lie in retroperitoneal space in superior lumbar region  Protection: a portion by ribs Proximity to spleen and liver:  right kidney is slightly lower than left Size:  150 grams; 12 cm long, 6 cm wide, 3 cm thick; bean shaped Renal hilus:  concave medial surface, leads into renal sinus, location of ureters, vessels (blood/lymph)  and nerves Three layers around kidney  1. Renal capsule     : innermost layer,adheres to kidney surface; barrier: prevents infection 2. Adipose capsule     3. Renal fascia     :  outermost layer: dense connective tissue; anchors organs to surrounding structures B. Macroscopic anatomy of kidney  Adrenal (suprarenal) glands:       lie on top of kidney  Outer cortex     :  light outer segment, granular Inner medulla     :  reddish-brown with cone shaped masses called renal pyramids Renal pyramids:      Broad base faces cortex while apex (papilla) points internally; possess renal  collecting tubules Renal columns:       inward extensions of cortical tissue that separate pyramids Lobe:       each medullary pyramid and its adjacent capsule of cortical tissue Renal pelvis     : flat funnel-shaped tube which is continuous with the ureter leaving the hilus 1
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Major calyces (2-3):       branching extensions of the pelvis Minor calyces:       subdivisions of the major calyces:   cup-shaped areas that enclose papillae of the pyramids 2
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Ductwork of kidney: Minor calyces      Major calyces          Renal pelvis         ureter      bladder urethra C. Blood and Nerve Supply: Renal arteries deliver ¼ of systemic cardiac output to kidneys  each minute (1200ml) Renal arteries      divide into segmental arteries  that enter hilus Each segmental artery divides into lobar arteries  which divide into interlobar arteries  (pass between  medullary pyramids to cortex) Interlobar arteries divide into arcuate arteries
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Chapter26_2008Urinary - Chapter 26: The Urinary System I....

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