Study_Guide_1 - Corrections Study Guide for Exam 1 Please...

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Corrections Study Guide for Exam 1 Please be familiar with these concepts. Remember – this is a study guide, not an answer key to the exam. Your exam may have questions that do not appear on this guide. History of Corrections: Lex Talionis: Eye for an Eye Wergild: reparational payment usually demanded of a person guilty of homicide or other wrongful death, although it could also be demanded in other cases of serious crime. Benefit of the clergy: Forms of punishment in the late middle ages : fines, galley slavery, imprisonment, transportation, corporal punishment, death. Classical school of thought: Hedonic calculus: an algorithm formulated by Jeremy Bentham for calculating the degree or amount of happiness that a specific action is likely to cause, and hence its degree of moral rightness Reformers in corrections: What did they advocate? Did they make any changes? Beccaria: 1. greatest good for the greatest number of people 2. Crime must be considered an injury to society 3. Prevention of crime is more important that punishment of crimes 4. Secret accusations and torture must be abolished 5. Purpose is deterrence, not revenge 6. Imprisonment should be widely employed with a classification system Bentham: - advocated utilitarianism, the maximization of pleasure, and avoidance of pain - introduced hedonic calculus - believed punishment should fit the crime and be consistent - Both Beccaria and Bentham sent the message that all people should be treated equally under the law Howard : - He studied the conditions of English prisons - Prison was for penance, contrition, and labor Fry: - Society of friends in England - Worked to improve the conditions of women’s prison Correction in the US: How were people punished during these time periods? Colonial: Followed English punishment—banishment, pillory, death
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Penitentiary: institution designed to isolate prisoners from society and from each other so they can reflect, repent, and undergo reformation Reformatory: institution for young offenders emphasizing training, a mark system of classification (system for calculating when an offender will be released from custody), indeterminate sentences and parole. Progressive:
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Study_Guide_1 - Corrections Study Guide for Exam 1 Please...

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