soc 040 discussion study guide

soc 040 discussion study guide - Part I. Theory Evaluation...

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Part I. Theory Evaluation 1. What is the difference between a micro and macro theory of crime? Micro addresses why are there variations in groups rates of crime and Macro explains why there are some individuals who are more likely than others to commit crimes. Example of Micro: (1) Why does the United States have higher rates of firearm homicide and suicide than Canada, Britain, Germany and other industrialized nations? (2) Why do males as a group commit more violent crimes than females? Example of Macro: (1) Why are some persons more likely to break the law than others? (2) Under what circumstances do individuals typically obey or violate the law. 2. When referring to criteria for theory evaluation, what do we mean by: a. Logical Consistency? b. Scope? c. Parsimony? d. Testability? e. Empirical validity? f. Usefulness? g. Policy Implications? 3. What do criminological theories seek to answer? (1) Why are there variations in groups rates of crime? (2) Why are some individuals more likely than others to commit crimes. Part II. Different Theories of Crime
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Demonological Theory 1. How does demonological theory explain crime? It is the oldest explanation of crime in which crime is attributed to preternatural forces and a criminal is a sinner under control of Satan. 2. What is the great schism? What led to it? It was a split in the catholic church in 1378. The schism in the Western church resulted from the untimely return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome by Pope Gregory XI in 1378, ending the Avignon Papacy. 3. What role did the inquisition play in terms of the administration of criminal justice? Inquisition: Numbers evidence inquisition accepted method of administering CJ in Europe. Executions weren’t carried out by the church, but by civil authority. 4. What historical conditions gave rise to the inquisition? Weaknesses in both State fueled by wars; weaknesses in Church fueled by fear of heresies led to an ‘unholy’ alliance between two institutions in the Middle Ages. This gave rise to the inquisition--Elimination of those disagreeing with official beliefs. It allowed civil authorities to execute threats to state. The accused faced torture, hanging, beheading, burning at the stake, or other horrific method. Execution was a reminder that sinner (heretic) or criminal had engaged in behaviors outside his/her control. 5. How did the inquisition serve the church and state? It eliminated those disagreeing with official beliefs. Allowed civil authorities to execute threats to state.
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Classical Theory (Rational Choice Theory) 1. What gave rise to the classical school? --Backlash to administration of justice in Europe in 17th and 18th centuries. --cruel, uncertain, unpredictable, biased, and based on caprice. --penal policy designed to control ‘dangerous’ classes: unemployed, workers, masses;
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course SOC 40 taught by Professor Kpsowa during the Winter '06 term at UC Riverside.

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soc 040 discussion study guide - Part I. Theory Evaluation...

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