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C1403.2006.Week_Twelve.POST

C1403.2006.Week_Twelve.POST - Petroleum Distillation...

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Petroleum Distillation
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Natural Gases and Gasolines Methane CH 4 Ethane CH 3 CH 3 Propane CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 Butane (2) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 n-butane iso-butane Pentane (3) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Hexane (5) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Heptane (9) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Octane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 n-octane straight-chain zero-octane iso-octane branch-chain 100-octane C 20 H 42 Over 300,000 isomers
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Aspects of Organic Chemistry Structure and Reactivity • Oxidation/Reduction • Substitution • Addition/Elimination Molecular structure Geometric isomers Stereoisomers Reactivity and dynamics Thermodynamic control Chemical control Reacting bromine with hexenes and toluene Reacting permanganate with hexanes and hexenes
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Geometric Isomers Formulas for saturated ALKANE hydrocarbons conform to C n H 2n+2 – methane-ethane-propane Butane (2) Pentane (3) Hexane (5) Heptane (9) Formulas for unsaturated ALKENE hydrocarbons conform to C n H 2n Ethene - Propene – Butene – Butadiene – Hexatriene – Isoprene Benzene is NOT an alkene but is the parent of a class of similar AROMATIC hydrocarbons: Toluene Xylene
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Spectroscopic Properties Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy is primarily used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecules in/as gases, liquids, solids, or solutions, based on the unique “fingerprint” provided by interaction with radiation in the range of 2.5-25 microns.
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