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C1403.2006.Week_Six.1.POST

C1403.2006.Week_Six.1.POST - Mass Spectrometry Mass...

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Mass Spectrometry
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Mass Spectrometry Neon 20 Ne 90.48 21 Ne 0.27 22 Ne 9.25 Uranium 234 U 0.006 235 U 0.7 238 U 99.3 Separation of 238 and 235 by gaseous diffusion: enrichment factor for UF 6 =1.004
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Binding Energy Mass defect and binding energy for the deuteron m = m p + m n - m deuteron = 1.0078 + 1.0087 - 2.0140 = 0.0025 2.3 MeV 1 = 1 amu = 931.4 MeV
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Binding Energy Mass of an atom is less than the sum of its parts The oxygen atom eight electrons and eight protons as H atoms eight neutrons. • Total combined mass is 15.994 915 amu • Total separated mass is 16.131 925 amu Mass difference: 0.137 010
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Binding energy per nucleon energy equivalent of the mass difference E B 0.137010 amu 931.4 MeV / atom amu E B 127.6 MeV / atom E B A 127.6 MeV / atom 16 nucleons / atom 7.98 MeV / nucleon Compare binding energy to “bond” energy 2 O O 2 ~ 5 eV HUGE Difference of 6 orders-of-magnitude.
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Curve of binding energy In this region E B scales with A Fusion is Energy-releasing Fission is Energy-releasing
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Curve of binding energy E B /A begins with a low value for deuterium and then increases rapidly through He, C, and O which are exceptionally stable. • Evidence for stability is α -decay in radioactivity • (E B /A) max is at 8.75 MeV/amu = 63 Cu 29 • E B /A for 235 U 92 is at 7.61 MeV/amu
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