C1403.2006.8.1.POST

# C1403.2006.8.1.POST - Neutron Activation Analysis and the...

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Neutron Activation Analysis
Big Bang Theory and the Early Universe

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Global Warming Frozen in memory Rhone glacier in Gletsch, Switzerland (1870/2006)
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle The Davisson-Germer Experiment and the Compton Effect demonstrated that although the intrinsic nature of an electron or a photon does not change with the experiment, what you are able to SENSE (measure) does change. Nobel Prize for 1932 Werner Heisenberg (left, with Neils Bohr), for discovering quantum mechanics

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Classical wave properties of photons (a) or particle properties of electrons (b), can be determined in separate experiments, but cannot be measured simultaneously.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle ! p ! x " 1 2 h 2 # \$ % ; m ! v ! x " h 4 ! E ! t " h 4 The product of the uncertainties in the momentum and position approaches the limiting value of Planck’s constant. The product of the uncertainties in the energy and time of an event approaches the limiting value of Planck’s constant.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle CLASSICAL: For a classical particle of mg mass, knowing the position to within 10 -12 cm limits knowing the velocity to 10 -12 cm/sec. ! p ! x " 1 2 h 2 # \$ % = m ! v ! x " h 4 = ! v ! x " h 4 m ! v ! x " h 4 m ( 10 ) 27 10 ) 3 ( 10 ) 24 ! v ! x " h 4 m ( 10 ) 27 10 ) 27 ( 10 0 NONCLASSICAL: Locating an electron-sized particle to an uncertainty of 10 -6 cm, precludes knowing the velocity to better than 10 6 cm/sec.

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S canning T unneling M icroscopy A tomic F orce M icroscopy Discovered in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (IBM), STM makes possible the mapping of surfaces at the atomic level. Works by raster scanning the tip of a fine wire over a conducting surface. At a distance of a few angstroms, it is possible to produce an image of the surface as a detailed topological map. The principal effects that make STM possible are quantum mechanical and piezoelectric AFM can image nonconducting materials such as polymers, ceramics, and biological materials.
S canning T unneling M icroscopy The principal effects that make STM possible are quantum mechanical and piezoelectric Quantum mechanical TUNNELING, the effect of the

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## This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course CHEM 1403 taught by Professor Leornardfine during the Fall '07 term at Columbia.

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C1403.2006.8.1.POST - Neutron Activation Analysis and the...

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