C1403.2006._Week_Five.1_2

C1403.2006._Week_Five.1_2 - Nuclear Properties and...

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Nuclear Properties and Processes Discoveries, Theories , Inventions and Methods X-rays (Rontgen) Radioactivity (Becquerel; M. and P. Curie) Fisson and nucleosynthesis (Fermi; Hahn, Strassmann,Meitner; Bohr,Wheeler; Landau) Fusion and nucleogenesis (Tamm, Sakharov, Artsimovich, Teller, Bethe) Vacuum pump; Hittorf tube Cyclotrons and accelerators Geiger counters and cloud chambers Power plants and Weapons Mass spectrometer; Isotopes; new (heavy) elements Radiocarbon dating; dating methods
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Structure and Composition Electrons Cathode rays (electrons) directed across a region in space where a magnetic field acts perpendicular to an electric field. When one field matches the other, the velocity cancels Charge-to-mass (e/m) ratio: 1.76 X 10 8 C/g; 5.27 X 10 17 esu/g
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Structure and Composition Electrons Millikan oil drop experiment All electric charges are multiples of one elementary unit: q e = 1.6 X 10 -19 C = 4.8 X 10 -10 esu. On that basis: m = 9.1 X 10 -28 g v = 3 X 10 9 cm/s
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Structure and Composition X-rays Highly penetrating, high energy radiation of short wavelength, on the order of 10 -8 m. Certain fluorescent salts stimulated to emit light by near-by cathode rays. Barium platinocyanide
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Radioactivity Type Foil Thickness Penetrating Power Charge Rest Mass alpha 0.005 mm 1 2+ 4 amu beta 0.50 mm 100 1- 1/1837 amu gamma 5.0 mm 1000 0 0
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α− particles are Helium nuclei Rutherford and Royds experiment He H
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Geiger-Muller Counter
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Nuclear Atom Ernest Rutherford – Geiger and Marsden
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course CHEM 1403 taught by Professor Leornardfine during the Fall '07 term at Columbia.

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C1403.2006._Week_Five.1_2 - Nuclear Properties and...

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