Engin112-F07-L05-codes

# Engin112-F07-L05-codes - Engin112 Lecture 5 Number Codes...

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1 Tilman Wolf Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 9/14/07 Engin112 – Lecture 5 Number Codes and Registers Engin112 – 9/14/07 2 Recap From Last Lecture ± Arithmetic with binary numbers y Addition y Subtraction y Multiplication ± Signed numbers y Signed Magnitude y Complement representation » Radix complement » Diminished radix complement ± Today: codes for non-numeric information

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2 Engin112 – 9/14/07 3 Binary Codes ± Most data on computers are not numbers y Data is still encoded with 0’s and 1’s ± Need codes for y Text characters y Floating point numbers y Images y Programs y ± “An n-bit binary code is a group of n bits that assume up to 2 n distinct combinations of 1’s and 0’s, with each combination representing one element of the set that is being coded.” Engin112 – 9/14/07 4 Binary Codes ± Example: coding of compass directions: E, W, N, S y 2-bit code can assume 2 2 =4 combinations y Code: 00 <–> E, 01 <–> W, 10 <–> N, 11 <–> S ± Is this the only possible code? y Other 2-bit codes (24 possible solutions) y Other n-bit codes (n>2, infinitely many solutions) y E.g.: 0001 <–> E, 0010 <–> W, 0100 <–> N, 1000 <–> S ± Observations y Each element must be assigned at least one unique binary bit combination y Not all binary bit combinations need to have an element assigned
3 Engin112 – 9/14/07 5 BCD Code ± Some (old) computers code numbers in decimals y “Binary Coded Digits” y Each 4-bit binary sequence encodes one base-10 digit ± Sanity check: y Does each element of the coded set have a unique bit sequence assigned? y Are there any invalid/unassigned bit sequences ± Decimal numbers are coded as multiple BCD digits y E.g., (396) 10 = (0011 1001 0110) BCD y How many bits would it take in binary? 1001

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## This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course ENGIN 112 taught by Professor Ciesielski during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Engin112-F07-L05-codes - Engin112 Lecture 5 Number Codes...

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