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Chapter 17 Lecture 2

Chapter 17 Lecture 2 - Chapter 17 Lecture 2...

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Chapter 17 Lecture 2 Thermodynamics (completed) Third Law: The entropy of a perfect crystal at 0 K is zero Second Law: Entropy for the universe is always increasing. S universe = S system + S surroundings > 0 Means: In the process of injecting order into a system, there is a bigger mess somewhere else. Gibbs Free Energy: Enthalpy + Entropy ΔG = ΔH ─ TΔS This is the complete thermodynamic picture, but does not tell you how fast the reaction will occur. ∆G is about the propensity for a reaction to occur: When chemicals mix …… ∆G < 0 reaction will be spontaneous ∆G>0 reaction will be non-spontaneous
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ΔG = ΔH ─ TΔS Case ΔH ΔS ΔG Result 1 + Spon. (all T) Spontaneous reactions occur when: heat is released and a mess results 2O 3 3O 2 Case ΔH ΔS ΔG Result 2L Spon. (Low T) The heat released compensates for the Increase in order, but only at low T N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 Case ΔH ΔS ΔG Result 2H + Nonspon. (High T) Rather rare: The reaction stops when the Temperature is raised.
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