DP study guide for Chapter 16

DP study guide for Chapter 16 - DP's Study guide to Chapter...

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DP’s Study guide to Chapter 16 General Chemistry, 4th Ed.”, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, and Perry (ISBN 0-13- 140313-3) Section 16.1 This is where we admit to more of the lies you were told in Chem 1. These were of course for your own protection. Previously we had catoregized compounds into soluble and insoluble. Now for more of the details: If you can get 0.1 moles of the solid to dissolve per liter, it is considered soluble. If you can’t get that much to dissolve then it’s insoluble. Of course you have learned your solubility rules which give some idea about what will dissolve, and what will not. Now for the truth: All solids are dissolvable to some degree, albeit very, very little. The general form is: AaBb(s) aA + + bB b a B A Ksp ] [ ] [ = Where Ksp is the solubility product constant. Like any equilibrium, you have to have all the players. The eight dollar word for this type of a solution is saturated. “The solution is saturated in silver chloride”. If you read this you should get a picture of a beaker with silver and chloride ions floating around in solution and solid silver chloride on the bottom of the beaker. In the generic case above, AaBb is a solid in the bottom of the beaker, if it is not there, no equilibrium, no chemical equation, mathematical description not valid, you get the problem wrong etc. etc. If the entire solid dissolves you just calculate the concentrations of the ions in the solution using just stoichiometry. Problems: 19 and 21 Section 16.2 The solubility product constant does not equal the solubility. Students often get these two terms confused, I guess it is because they sound similar. The solubility product constant is Ksp; you usually look it up in a table or calculate it using the equilibrium concentrations of the ions. Solubility is usually denoted “s”, pronounced little s, and represents the number of moles of the solid that will dissolve in a litter of solution. You can calculate the solubility of a compound using the ICE method developed over the last few chapters. Instead of using “x” you use “s”, but unlike “x” that you must define each time, “s” has a single definition: Let s = the number of moles of the compound that dissolve. A tip from DP:
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DP study guide for Chapter 16 - DP's Study guide to Chapter...

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