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DP Study Guide to Chapter 17

DP Study Guide to Chapter 17 - DPs Study Guide to Chapter...

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DPs Study Guide to Chapter 17 General Chemistry, 4th Ed.”, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, and Perry (ISBN 0-13- 140313-3) This chapter is about entropy, the rest of the story concerning Thermodyamics, ie the energy relationships involved during a chemical reaction or any process for that matter. Everyone should be interested in this chapter because it explains why your room gets messy seeming all by itself, why the universe expands, and why nature (plants and animals) spends a great deal of effort keeping order and balance. I know I am not suppose to bad mouth the book (a student panel selected the book, DP is always the last to know), we never make mistakes, that sort of thing but …. Chapter 17 reads like mumbo-jumbo with equations sprinkled about for good measure. I checked out when I read on page 718: “The true meaning of entropy still relates to the availability and occupation of energy levels.” This is not false, but I would not say that to a freshman chemistry student. Do you at this moment have a clear understanding of what an energy level is? If you do, you did not get it out of this book, for Hill fails to explain it. So what are we going to do with this mess? DP will give some illustrations about entropy, and then move to free energy, or ΔG which is where we want to be. Section 17.1&2. Some processes are spontaneous, you simply put the players together and changes take place. This part Hill gets right and you have to pay attention. Thermodynamics tells you about the future equilibrium of the reaction, will reactants pile up to a great extent or not? If you mix two chemicals the thermodynamics predicts the propensity for reaction, and the extent of the reaction in this process there will be an energy change. Kinetics is about how fast this process of coming to equilibrium comes about. From experience you can point to several reactions that you know to be spontaneous: (obviously, most of you will not have had this much experience) Exercise 17.1A, Problem 1 Section 17.3 You know about enthalpy and work. The enthalpy has to do with the kinetic energy or motion of the molecules, work has to do with the transfer of the enthalpy to mechanical motion. In this course we set up our experiments so that we could ignore most of the work by doing everything in an open container at constant pressure. Even ignoring work, there is another energy factor besides ∆H (read as how the motion of the molecules changed), called entropy, S. For most folks S is about the number of possible arrangements the molecules may take in a system. Not only do you have to worry about the enthalpy content, you also have to worry about the location, and possible locations the molecules may take.
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