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ANTH 2020 Notes - For Next Class Read"What is Normal Human...

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1/14/08 For Next Class: Read “What is Normal?” Human Variation- Wilt Chamberlain is 7’1” and 275 lb and Willie Shoemaker (jockey) is 4’11” and 100 lb. Illustrates Human Variation. -It is important for any animal to categorize the types of individuals and differences between individuals in order to know who is part of your group and who is not, who is dangerous and who is safe. Understanding Variation in the Past --- Myths and Realities Giants- Robert Pershing Wadlow was 8’11” which can develop for a variety of reasons, so because this is not “normal,” they are thought of as “giants” Janus- Greek thing that has two faces which has always been thought of as myth, but there are animals and such that are born with two faces. Craniopagus parasiticus- A child that is born with a whole other head attached to the top of their head. -With all these differences, we have to decide if it is outside the norm. If not outside the norm for survival, who’s to say it is outside the norm for our species. -Cyclopia- Can and does happen. IMPORTANT***Sirenomilia*** AKA mermaid syndrome. It is very rare but it does occur. It is a developmental issue where the cells of the legs do not develop correctly and don’t separate. It is outside the norm in terms of walking like a human being, but not for survival, although doctors are very quick to separate it. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) – interested in bariation -Natural Selection 1) Biological characteristics vary 2) Some of this variation affects reproductive success (more babies!!!) 3) These traits are inherited by offspring 4) If enough differences accumulate, new species arise. BUT: How do we get such variation in the first place? Darwin used Pigeons to understand variation -She showed us a bunch of types of rock pigeons (common motherfucker that lives in NYC, Venice, etc…) that have extreme variation, but can all be found in a single sight where pigeons inhabit. -**Charles Darwin used comparative data from pigeons to demonstrate variability
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and to document how artificial selection or selective breeding could produce rapid changes in morphology and behavior. 1/16 is in notebook! 1/18
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Awajishima Free-ranging group of Japanese Monkeys (Macaca Fuscata) -86 of 606 born with some type of congenital limb malformation. -Malformed infants have a higher mortality rate, however more than 70% of malformed individuals were able to survive more than one year. Polythelia and Athelia – More than two nipples (could be because our ancestors had litters) vs. not having any nipples. Microtia - having underdeveloped ear with all the parts, just smaller. In humans and primates and a lemur, who doesn’t seem to know about his condition, and other lemurs don’t acknowledge. Verilization - Female genitalia transforming to look more like men’s. Happening with polar bears.
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