E7_Analysis_of_a_Fatty_Acid

E7_Analysis_of_a_Fatty_Acid - EXPERIMENT 7 Analysis of a...

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69 EXPERIMENT 7 Analysis of a Fatty Acid Objective: The identity of an unknown fatty acid will be determined by titration with NaOH. Introduction: Fatty acids are organic acids. Each is composed of an unbranched hydrocarbon chain to which is attached a carboxyl group. In some cases, the hydrocarbon chain contains carbon- carbon double bonds. Butyric acid is an example of a fatty acid (see Figure 7.1). H 3 C H 2 C C H 2 C O OH Hydrocarbon chain Carboxyl group Figure 7.1: Butyric Acid Fatty acids are so-named because they are produced by the hydrolysis of animal fats and vegetable oils (see Table 7.1). Table 7.1: Fatty Acids Name Formula Molar Mass (g/mol) Obtained From Butyric CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CO 2 H 88.1 Butter Caproic CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CO 2 H 116.2 Butter and goat fat Caprylic CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 CO 2 H 144.2 Butter, goat fat, and coconut oil Capric CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CO 2 H 172.3 Butter, goat fat, and coconut oil Lauric CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 CO 2 H 200.3 Coconut and palm oil Myristic CH 3 (CH 2 ) 12 CO 2 H 228.4 Butter, coconut oil, palm oil, beef tallow, and cod liver oil Palmitic CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 CO 2 H 256.4 Butter, coconut oil, plam oil, beef tallow, cod liver oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, lard, olive oil, peanut oil, and linseed oil Stearic CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 CO 2 H 284.5 All of the above
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Experiment 7: Analysis of a Fatty Acid 70 Fatty acids have great economic and biochemical importance. They are used in the manufacture of soap, as additives to increase the viscosity of cosmetics, and as additives to lubricants, rubbers, and dyes. Humans and animals use fatty acids as a form of energy storage. Human and animal bodies can make fatty acids from ingested organic compounds. When the body needs energy, it “burns” (reacts with O 2 ) these fatty acids to produce carbon dioxide and water. The energy released during this body-temperature combustion is used to sustain life processes. In this experiment, the identity of an unknown fatty acid will be determined by reaction with sodium hydroxide, NaOH. The fatty acids used in this experiment all have the general formula CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2n CO 2 H, where n = 1 – 8 (see Table 7.1). The reaction between one of these
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