Midterm_1 - • Exercise Science Midterm 1 Study Guide...

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Exercise Science Midterm 1 Study Guide Metabolism o Definition: refining the fuel of food into ATP and CP o Adensine Triphosphiate (ATP) and Creatine Phosphiate (CP) utilization Both directly used for muscle transaction Catabolic reaction: breakdown (gives energy) Anabolic reaction: build up (needs energy) ATP ATPase > ADP + P + energy Energy is used for muscle contractions and other purposes ADP + P + energy ATPase > ATP Ongoing process to break down food CP + ADP CPK > ATP + Creatine Repohsphorilate process (adding phosphate) Creatine and ATP are immediate forms of energy CHO/Protein/Fat Metabolism > energy + CO2 + H2O o Fuel reserves ATP/CP: forms of energy used for muscle transaction 15-20 calories of ATP/CP stored in the body at a time Relatively limited amount Must be regenerated quickly by the food that we eat Glycogen: animal starch store predominately in the skeletal muscle 1200-1500 calories of glycogen stored in the body at a time Unlikely to deplete Fairly constant among people Fat Each pound of fat is worth 4000 calories Variable amounts of fat among people o Exercise intensity, duration, and the three metabolic systems Exercise intensity and duration Although even 1 pound of fat provides enough energy for high amounts of exercise, it isn’t easy for your body to use its fat as energy With lower intensity of exercise, your body has more increased amounts of fat mobilization With higher intensity of exercise, your body has less amounts of fat mobilization Women (more fat) are able to utilize a greater amount of energy as fat More intense exercise produced more Lactic Acid The untrained athlete produces more lactic acid than the trained athlete because the untrained athlete is exercising at a higher capacity of his body Athletes can take a base to outweigh the lactic acid 3 metabolic systems
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Immediate o Initial source of energy o Lasts up to about 30 seconds Anaerobic o Starts in at two minutes Aerobic o Starts slowly and peaks at 5 minutes Glycolysis o Dissolution (breakdown) of sugar o Fuel: Glucose (C6H12O6) o End product: 2 molecules of pyruvate (C3H4O3) – net loss of 4 Hydrogen Pyruvate is a carbohydrate derivative o Glycolysis uses 2 ATP to breakdown glucose and produces 4 gross ATP (2 Net ATP) o Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) Derived from Vitamin B3 – if you had a vitamin B3 deficiency, you would not be able to produce ATP as well Coenzyme that provides hydrogen transport to the Cytochrome Takes 4 Hydrogen electrons and transports them to the aerobic system In the aerobic system, oxygen acts as a hydrogen scavenger If there is oxygen availability, it will remove the 2 hydrogen electrons from the NAD If there is not enough oxygen, the NAD will not release the hydrogen and the NAD is caught up in the system o Anaerobic glycolysis Pyruvate either goes to the aerobic metabolism system (Kreb’s Cycle) or
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