E3_Chemical_Reactions - EXPERIMENT 3 Chemical Reactions...

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19 EXPERIMENT 3 Chemical Reactions Objective: Develop observation skills by observing chemical reactions of a variety of types. Use observations of physical changes to construct balanced chemical equations for reactions. Learn some basic laboratory techniques. Introduction: Chemistry is an experimental science. Performing tests and observing the results are inherent parts of its study. Developing the ability to make keen, careful observations is a necessity. In this experiment, you will observe a large number of chemical reactions. As you perform the reactions, observe carefully what happens and make a complete record of your observations. Record your observations as you observe them. Don’t wait until later; you might forget what happened. Noteworthy observations include whether a gas is produced, a color change occurs, heat is absorbed (testtube cools off) or produced (testtube warms up), or if a precipitate (solid) forms. It is these kinds of changes that signal whether a reaction is occurring— and in some cases what type of reaction is occurring. In this experiment, you will not have time to carry out chemical reactions of every known general type, but there will be time for you to perform a number of reactions representative of two of the general classes of chemical reactions: • (Part A) Metathesis (double-displacement) and complexation reactions • (Part B) Decomposition reactions Your purpose in this experiment is to observe chemical reactions of various types and summarize the chemical changes in terms of balanced chemical equations. There are two parts to this experiment, Parts A and B. Each part deals with a different class of chemical reactions. More specific details about each class of reaction are provided in each section. Part A: Metathesis Reactions and Complexation Reactions Metathesis reactions , also known as double-displacement reactions, are those in which the reactants exchange partners with each other, AB + CD AD + CB (1) Often these reactions occur in aqueous solution. Two of the most common types of metathesis reactions are double-displacement reactions between salts and acid–base neutralization reactions. Complexation reactions are similar to metathesis reactions in that they do not involve oxidation or reduction, and they often consist of replacement of one species by another. They
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Experiment 3: Chemical Reactions 20 are, however, fundamentally different from metathesis reactions because they involve a special type of compound called a complex or coordination compound. The nature of the bonding in complexes is quite different from that in compounds containing ordinary covalent bonds. In a complex, the shared electrons in the covalent bond come from only one of the species involved. To form a complex, a number of anions or neutral molecules (termed
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E3_Chemical_Reactions - EXPERIMENT 3 Chemical Reactions...

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