First Midterm - Vera-ion III ofFirst Term Test in MBA tot-2...

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Unformatted text preview: Vera-ion III ofFirst Term Test in MBA tot-2. Gwlog) 1. Chapters 1 -2» t'. Thun. Feb. 1. 2013 a $2 penal This is \cluul‘l :1 Instructions: Ans“ er all questions on the red scantrun sheet. using 50 please cover circle #1 in the area labeled "Grade 01' Estimation" at the human 01 your scmtron set-ins the Circles under She‘l- Em" Your family name (last name) first on the red sheet. co your name. Then enter your given name. Enter your NCSU lD number in the identification- It is to your advantage to answer all 50 questions. even if uncertain am after the test at our intemet nddresfi. i.e.. l YOur answers. Answers will be posted a few hours _ http://caurses.ncsu.edit/mealOl/commmt/media/index.hurt! 2. You may keep this whit: 9'3 0' qWfliOHS. alter you detach and submit the colored cover sheet. For those also grant us pennission. grades will be posted at the same site according to the first four digits taken from the NCSU ID number. as soon as the grades are determined (usually within two days of the test) 5'0 electronic devices are permitted, including hand calculators. In most questions. altemllc answers are printed in a bold font for clarity. This has no relationship to correctness. are visible. In the I). Fig. 1 illustrates the countries in half of the world. All of Eumpe and Africa lie in Europe. Only one lies in Africa. The sole following series, four of the five listed countries African country is [A] Croatia. ...JB] Portugal. ...!C] Angola. ...JD] Albanin- J15] Hungary. Fig. l. A Hemispheric View of Earth System has aggregated within the central object, our Sun. It e total mass, most of which is hydrogen and helium. Day-by- 2). Most of the matter in our Solar [A] increases slightly ....IB] stays exactly ended up with about 99.7% of th day, the ratio of hydrogen-to-helium in our Sun . the same ....iC] decreases slightly. 3). Earth accumulated its mass by accretion of small particles that were whirling around the new- -1- Version #1 of First 't can u: in... . . _ born Sun within a disk-shaped region. Earth accumulated “filing: )1: gals-gowns; I“? 3:: 6 interval of [A] 5.6 to 5.2 billion years ago. ...!B] 4.8 to . ' billion years ago. .../D] 3.1 to 2.6 billion years 380- ' 11 within the region 4). Upward heat transfer within the Earth mostly is this convection m occur. it is true um [A] between the core and crust (called the man - _ the mantle must be mostly magma (liquid) ...JB] althouflvh 501“! the mantl move .. 1C] the mantle is able to transfer heat even solid. 5). As soon as Earth had cooled enough, it developed a rigid external layer $3 hiked 31?; ' ' thi a or im on trans underwent continuous deformation, largely because 5 y layer is called [Al from the underlying mantle. 1n the Plate Tectonic ’l‘heory. this rigid memal , .../E] oceanic rock. basalt. ...!B] andesite. ..JC] lithosphere. .../D] continental rock. onic Theory, the asthenosphere to the Plate Tect solid basalt. .../D] (3] molten peridotite. ..JC 6). Fig. 2 illustrates the asthenosphere. According is mostly composed of [A] solid peridotite. 7). The name for Japan, in either Japanese or Chinese, is Edi. The first kanji (Chinese character), B , represents the Sun (with a wispy cloud sailing across it). Like all round objects, the Sun has been "squared" in the Sine-Japanese languages to make it easier to write quickly. The second character. $.depicts [A] a rocket because the Japanese are the world's best rocket scientists. ........ .13] the handle of a sword because the Japanese have produced the world's best swords. ........... {C} a tree root because, to the Chinese, the Japanese have been rooted in the Sun (originating from the direction of the rising Sun, i.e., the East). ..........JD] a period, given that the Japanese sentence. 8). The age of Eanh's materials can be measured from their progressive decrease in radioactivity. A decrease in radioactivity has resulted in overall cooling of planet Earth. In turn, geologists can tell from the rock record that this cooling has resulted in ...[A] a decrease in the average rate of rock deformation ....IB] an increase in the average rate of rock deformation ....IC] :1 decrease in the frequency of hurricanes .. D] an increase in the frequency of hurricanes. 9). The mesosphere is labelled on the left side of Fig. 3. The name, mesosphere, was chosen because [A] it means the middle sphere. .../B] mesolite is the dominant rock type in this -2- Vers' ' ton #1 of first Test in MBA 101-2. Spring of 2013 Professor potamia portion of the Earth . Mesa of the Unmgijyclr'h“ Portion of the Earth in. been studied diligently by 0 Tokyo, ..JD] the name, mesosphcrc. was initiated in Mesa Fig. 3. Compositional Layers of Planet Earth 10). According to the Plate Tecto pole going to the south pole. Th became the prime evidence for plate tectonics. they approached either the north 9°13 0" the mum . .. [A] that their compasses did not work when pole. c.g.. near Vostoic. Antarctica. ....{B] the discovery as were actively spreading. magnetized basalt in regions where the plat Iceland. .../C] the ° ' their electrical equipment whenever they changed their clocks as they I Standard Time to Central Standard Time. erms. The one term which is not erized by all but one of the following t 1 an oxygen anion. .JD] an 1]). Fig. 4 is charact gen ion. .JB] an oxygen cation. ..JC appropriate is [A] an oxy oxygen atom. Fig. 4. Oxygen 0-2 ‘ g an electron, as illustrated in Fig. 5, the 12). If a mineral is ....IC] metallic ..../D] fluoridation. bonding is classified as Fig. 5. Bonding to Produce Lithium Fluoride Version #1 of First Test in MBA 101-2. Spring of 2013 13). Fig. 5 illustrates [A] an atom or’H. ......JBI an Item of ‘BC- ......./C] 3" MOP“ “EC- ....... [D] an Isotope of .0. ......./E] an atom of‘He. Fig. 6. Atomic Structure of a Light Element 0 Emit!!! sudden _. ' . Electron _- 14). Fig. 7 reveals that every tetrahedron within a sheet silicate has the same ratio of oxygens-to- tetrahedral centers. Each illustrated tetrahedron is sharing all three oxygens which form its base. For sheet silicates like this, the ratio of oxygens-to-tetrahedral centers therefore is ............. [A] ll-to—4 ...... JB] 3-to—I ....... KC] 4-10-1 ID] Z—to-l ....... IE] S-to-Z. Fig. 7. Polymerized Sheet of'l‘etrahedra 15). Fig. 8 illustrates an oxygen anion with a charge of -2. Most of the oxygen that we breathe is [A] an oxygen molecule, 02, with a charge of -2. [B] ozone, 03, with a charge of -3. ..... /C] an oxygen molecule, 02, with no charge ID] ozone, 03, with a charge of +3. Fig. 8. Ionized Oxygen O -2 ® 16). Within the periodic table (Fig. 9), the elements in the far-left column (with H, Li, Na. K, etc.) tend to form mmerals by bonding with the elements in the column that lies second from the right -4- Vets“ - loo #1 of First Test in MBA 101-2, Spring 0f2013 (With F. Cl, Br ct With elements in 1;: c The calm 0!! the far right (with He. Ne. Ar, etc.) [A] tends to bond {C1 lends ‘0 for-mo umn that hes second from the far-left {Bl tends not to form bonds. (with 0, 3. Se etc ) mmcms by banding with the elements in the third column from the right ’ ° ID] tends to form minerals by bonding with the elements in the fourth column from the right (with N, P, AI, etc.). “3- 9. Periodic Table of the Nnmnlly-Occurring Elements II“ C “HEW no that the following atom may determi ID] Si .......... IE] Al. 17). By using the periodic table shown above in Fig. 9. you (Fig. 10) is ...... '[A] N ............ [B] S ............ i010 .............. Fig. 10. Cross-section through an Atom 18). Atoms ionize to achiev elements like hydrogen (H) and lithium (Li of zero and two outermost e . ' sodium has a complete inner shel , sodium, one may deduce that it typically bonds by [A] donating one electron. [B] donating two electrons IC] donating three electrons. ID] receiving one electron. IE] receiving two electrons. VCISIUD "I Lu 3 ug- ...... -—_ t chemical elements in Earth‘s ' - b the nine mos“! a m [01’ aluminum ....JE] iron. 19 . Which of the followin is not one of ) 3 IB] silicon ...chcalciu crust? Choose among [A] carbon ' new minerals fonn 20 . Minerals are constantly being made and destrol"3d 0“ , virhenever lava pours out of a volcano and begins to crystallize. Other processes which make minerals include all of the following except " 18f freezing of a Isl-re during the winter ...... l wea collapse of a mountain side in a landslide. 21). Fig. l I illustrates the tetrahedral arrangement which characterizes the pyroxene group at; minerals. By considering how many oxygen-ts are “owned" by each central 51110011 atom 11! e sketch, one can calculate that the oxygen-to—silicon ratio of a typical pyroxene mineral i5 -- [A] ll-to-4 ........ {Bl 3-to-l IC] 4-to-l ID] 2-to-1 ........ IE] 540-2 — Fig. l l. Cross-linkage of Tetrahedra within Pyroxenes . Note that the structure continues indefinite] in o - . Site directions. bonding, the minerals which result from this 22). Given the partial sharing of electrons in covalent 1C] dense. ..... ID] low in density. bonding tend to be .. [A] soluble ...... [B] insoluble 23). Let us consider jade as an example of a mineral for which we can deduce the correct chemical formula by applying our understanding of characteristic oxygen-to—siiicon ratios and characteristic oxidation states. Jade is a type of pyroxene which contains equal amounts of sodium and alumintun. Using this information and one's knowledge of characteristic oxidation states, i.e., Si “’2 Al” , Na+ and 02', one should be able to deduce that the correct chemical formula forjade is [A] Na Al Si O; ...... [B] Na Al Si; 05 ........ 1C] Na; Al; Si 03. 24). Many "rock houn " prefer to collect nonsilicate minerals because some types of nonsilicates tend to be more brightly colored and more lustrous (shiny) than typical silicate minerals. The nonsilicate group which most consistently combines the attributes of intense color. high luster. and high economic value is the sulfide group. a group that includes minerals like sphalerite and galena. Sphalerite is zinc sulfide and galena is [A] lead sulfide ....... [B] copper sulfide ....... {C} silver sulfide ....... ID] bismuth sulfide ....... f5] iron sulfide. 25). Within New Mexico and Arizona. there are many flat-topped hills. called mesas, with basalt as the top-most bed in the flat-lying stratigraphic sequence. Sedimentary rocks such as -5- Verston #1 of First Test in MBA 101-2, Spring of 2013 sandstone ‘ - basalt to Naigghrfitntlypl‘ca": lie underneath the uppermost lava flow. The prime reason for generally resists email; 0:: as the uppermost stratigraphic unit in a mesa is 11131 H -- [A] hm“ those two Us st.‘ n tter than docs sandstone or shall: [B] basalt is more abundant in Either sands on than any other type of rock {c1 basalt is always darker in ‘0‘“ “‘3“ tone or shale and 15 therefore better able to absorb the intense sunlight that characterizes those two US States. 2%,le {he movac. Dante’s Peak (1997, with Pierce Brosnan), a truck is driven over flowing tic lava. In real-life, this would be impossible for several reasons. The prime reason that ”050d? Would survive this attempt is that [A] the lava would be flowing too quickly for ‘11: truck to make any progress [B] the air temperature would approximate lOOO'C. [C] the lava would be giving off concentrated cyanide gas. 27). Magma production on Earth has progressively decreased with progressive cooling of the planet. This has been beneficial for land-dwelling animals like m m because we are 5 atmosphere. Volcanic dust rapidly particularly susceptible to volcanic modification of Earth' cools the Earth's surface by blocking sunlight. Moreover, volcanically injected sulfur keeps the Earth cool for about five years if the eruption is big enough. A typical decrease in global temperature is on the order of... [A] 0.5 to 1°C ...... [B] 2 to 5°C ...... [C] S to 10°C [D] 10 to 20°C. flow structure on the surface of lava. This 28). Pahoehoe is the descriptive term for a preserved le of large rope on a dock. The term, surface resembles either the surface of a river or 2. pi the term for ajutnbled pile of broken lava pahoehoe, comes from the Hawaiian language, as does fragments. Ugly fragmentation of a congealed flow structure often occurs when additional lava pushes like a bulldozer against recently congealed lava. The resulting irregularly-broken surface is called .. [A] travertine ...... [B] punkrock ...... [C] maunaloite ...... [D] an. 29). North Carolina has many volcanoes which have been extinct for a few hundred million years. 'on of an addition onto Jordan Hall, the home of In 2006, foundations were dug for the constructi Marine, Earth & Atmospheric Sciences. This revealed volcanic rock, much like that which underlies most of Cary. Having formed on continental crust rather than oceanic crust, the volcanic rock under Jordan Hall and under Cary is largely [A] basalt with a little gabbro and granite [B] rhyolite with a little basalt and andesite... [C] peridotite with a little granodiorite and dioritc. 30). The last gases to escape from lava occasionally become trapped to form holes within the these holes become filled with minerals which precipitate from congeal ing lava. Eventually, uartz. The filled holes then are called amygdules. Amygdules are groundwater, c.g., calcite or q 3 basalt because the amygdules are [A] much typically easily differentiated from the enclosin darker in color [B] much lighter in color. [C] much harder. [D] much more odlferous 31). Weathering typically occurs rapidly in streams that drain from coal mines or from stockpiles of coal. causing discoloration of the riverbanks (producing a bright orange color). 0f the four chemical reactions listed in Fig. 12, one is most responsible for the extremely acidic conditions Version #1 ofFirst Test in MBA 101-2, Spring Df2013 al. Which one? [0) reaction D. that occur in streams which drain from coal mines or from stockpiles of co Choose (A) reaction A {B} reaction B EC) reaction C Fig. 12. Chemical Reactions Involved in Weathering ___________________________.______. Reaction A: 2 KAISi30g + 2 H+ + 9 H20 = Alei205(Ol-l)4 + 2 If." + 4 H45i04 K-feldspar + H+ + water — kaolinite + potassium ion + silicic acid ion Reaction B: CaCO3 + 1-1+ = HCO3' + Ca2+ calcite + hydrogen ion = bicarbonate ion + calcium ion Reaction C: C02 + H20 = H+ + HC03" carbon dioxide + water = hydrogen ion + bicarbonate ion Reaction 1): so; + 320 + 0.5 02 = 2 W + 5042‘ sulfur dioxide + water + oxygen = hydrogen ion + sulfate ion 32). Which of the chemical reactions illustrated in (overlying) Fig. 12 is the one which directly destroys the greatest mineral volume in North Carolina’s rocks each year? Choose reaction (A) IB) 1C) ID). 33). A paleosol is a buried soil. This type of weathering product is preserved just below the angular unconformity in Fig. 13. Angular unconforrnities are good places to search for paleosols because the underlying rock must have been exposed to prolonged weathering while being eroded nearly flat. Paleosols are studied for all but one of the following reasons. Which listed reason is not an important reason to study paleosols‘? Paleosols ..... W may contain fossils that reveal ancient lifeforrns. (B) may reveal the approximate average temperature at the time the soil was forming. .. {9/ may reveal the approximate annual rainfall at the time that the soil was forming. ID) may reveal the number of animals that walked over this soil while it was forming. Fig. 13. Weathering Product Developed along an Angular Unconformity "s _-.... stat-'42; ...v: “ . - .— 16.4..” .. _ . - _.._'. .‘J . J I . .z-:~5amss<3§ttt¢itifiifiirr‘ '- “*__ Ipfifixmggiit / "' .k. 34). If you were a Texan living in Dallas or Austin and found that the soil under your house would shrink noticeably during the dry season and then expand quite a lot during the rainy season, you Version #1 of First Test in MEA lOl-2. Spring of 201 3 would assume that your housi: was built upon [A] Ultisol (3| Mouimi .C} Alfisol ID] \ ertisol .-’E] Entisol. 35). Ofall chemical elements. carbon the one element which most characterizes biogcni'? chemical sediment such as limestone and coal. If all living matter were to be homogenized Ind analyzed chemically. one of the following formulae would closely approximate that restglins analysts. The chemical formula for living matter is ameXimmd)’ (A) C106 ”263 110 N16? ..... (B)C4Si04 ...... (C) CaC03 ....... (D)C106H1635110K16P- 36). Limestone which has formed within the 1335‘ 545 million years (Ma) commonly ”misfit: is fragments of marine animals such as coral and clams, whereas older limestone does 0101- ed because animals which precipitate CaCO; had not evolved prior to 545 Ma. The S45-Ma-ag rocks that contain abundant fossils mostly a ulated [A] in lakes mi “mm: if: including the floodplains of rivers. ...! on continental shelves. .. .. [D] on abyss: p - ' ‘ ' ‘ ' ' ' d ironstone. This 37). Fig. 14 illustrates a peculiar type of grain which occurs in both limestone an grain is called an ooid and it is.... [A] about the size of sand on North Carolina beaches. .....MJB] roughly the shape of I cylinder. ......JC] roushly the density 0f platinum. JD] less dense than water. . _ Fig. 14. Ooids Found in Bahammn Limestone . 3. 1,- . ' (fitting: Liz-$5“- ' ' .' 38). The label on Fig. 15 indicates that the finer-grained sediment is deposited during the winter. The designation of winter-time is chosen because it is assumed that [A] the wind is less intense during the winter. ....IB] the sunshine is less intense during the winter. ...JC] the lake is covered with leaves during the winter. ...JD] the lake is covered with ice during the winter. Version #1 of First Test in MBA 101-2. Spring of2013 -Altemating (V arved) Layers Deposited on a Lake Bed tin-guild sediment '- ammmm: seem-9M nah-cent abpoeflad during M Fig. 15. Seasonally ntinentai slope and rise. ° sediment to an adjacent co deep-sea fan occurs off The world's most voluminous [A] Chile. ...JB] Costa Rica. ....../C] Bangladesh. ..... ID] Australia. 40). Beaches in the Bahamas are mostly mostly composed of... [A] Fe103. 41). Fig 16 illustrates homfels. This is a metamorphic facies which is characterized by a dense, fine-grained, dark rock that is also called hornfcls. Typically, homfels forms [A] during meteorite impact. ...IB during burial deep into the Earth... .IC] around an igneous intrusion. .../D] if there is partial melting along a major fault zone. Fig. 16. Metamorphic Facies Town-rattle, Emu 42). Metamorphism involves the transformation of a previously-existing rock. The prior rock may ' e rock. In any case, the previously- be igneous, sedimentary. or a different type of metamorphi ' Greek words. "Proto" is used as in ' called a protolith. The term comes from two prototype, i.e. something which is early or incipient. "Lith" refers to [A] Archimedes Lith. 'ttle). [C] being light—weight and nimble (lithe). who first defined the term. .JB] being small (11 .JD] being rocky. .../E] lint, the mater-i 43). Burial metamorphism requires a minimum temperature of about 200 ”C. Given a nonml geothermal gradient under a continental shelf of about 35°Cikm, heating to this temperature -10- . new“. m 0! mm Test in MBA 101-2. Spring of 2013 would require su ' 36 km. bstdence to a depth of at least [A] 6 km ...JB]16 km ....;c126 km JD] 44). Textures ‘ distances (0:1“a'gsgmotfphosed shale mostly reflect [A] differences in temperature across 5‘10“ c 0 meters) ...JB] differencu in pressure along different directions ...JC] diffe ' rcnces in water content in the original sediment. 45). Basalt alwa ' _ vs contains calcium-bearing (plagioclase) feldspar. During low-Em“ metamorphism, much of this calcium enters both white calcite and a P815 green mineral called eptdote. A darker green mineral commonly forms simultaneously due to hydration 0f ft'vmll...
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