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History 5 Midterm Review #1IDs-1.Condottieri-What: the mercenary soldier leaders of the professional military free companies contracted by the Italian city-states; major leaders employed by given state or rulerAs for condottieri at lower levels, their politics were equally ambivalent. Condottieri were free to seek employment elsewhere once a contract had expired, and thus often served more than one side in a conflict or one state during the course of a career. Where: Italian city-statesWhen: 1494 Italian WarsSignificance: Often times, condottieri gained power both socially and politically. Socially, many came from the landed gentry, minor rural nobility, or the growing middle classes of later Medieval Europe. A few, such as Francesco Sforza, were successful enough to take control of a state for themselves, become higher nobility and found a ruling dynasty. 2.Defenestration of Prague-What: the throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia and started the 30 year war;The Defenestration of Prague first started when Ferdinand of Styria , the Catholic King of Bohemia, closed Protestant churches in 1617. In 1618, Protestants responded by throwing two of Ferdinand’s assistants out a window of a castle in Prague, both of whom fell 70 feet but survived. The Catholics believed the two men had been saved by angels; the Protestants believed the men had simply landed on a soft heap of horse manure.Where: PragueWhen: 1618Significance: marks the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War, which lead the Holy Roman Empire to be condensed to one nation which was ruled differently by the king-- religion was less relevant in terms of the religion’s identity3.Bastards What:Where: When:Significance:4.Edict of Nantes-What: issued by Henry IV-- granted the Calvinist Protestants of France substantial rights in a national still considered essentially Catholic;separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for secularism and toleranceWhere: FranceWhen:issued on April 13, 1598
Significance: In a time of such prejudice and hatred towards Protestants, especially in a Catholic nation, this granted Protestants freedom of conscience and offered many specific concessions, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including their right to work in any field or forthe State. one of the greatest acts of religious toleration 5.The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes What: Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes and ordered the destruction of Protestant churches and schools.Where: FranceWhen: 1685Significance: Not only is this significant because its an outburst of religious intolerance but it also had social and economic effects. Many Protestants wholeft France took special skills and techniques that caused the French economy to suffer. The various outlaws forced Protestants to seek refuge in other nations, benefitting those nations. Lack of religious freedom, social freedom, no property, etc. for Protestants6.