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SOC 101: Introduction to Sociology Final Exam Study Guide Summer 2015 – Aaron Hoy Unit 1: An Introduction to SociologicalReasoningImportant People in Sociology:Empirical (European) vs. Normative (more American)Empirical attempts to apprehend the world how it isNormative describes what the world ought to be Auguste ComteoCoined the term sociologist in 1842oFused “socist” (Greek for companion) and “logy” meaning studyoRelations between people oFirst called social physicsoInitial argument- people experienced intellectual anarchy. A shared belief of how society works no longer- diversity oUnderstanding transformed in a predictable wayoBelieved society developed through the law of three stages The Law of Three Stages:Theological stage- (religious understanding-predominate) Metaphysical stage- stage philosophy Positive/scientific stageoRocky transformation between 2ndand 3rdstageand it caused intellectual anarchy Emile Durkheim oProcess of institutionalizationoPhilosophy formal scienceoInterested in social solidarityoHuman behavior cannot be understood in terms of the individual;social forces are key oPre-modern modern oMechanical solidarity Organic SolidarityoIn organic Society they all still needed one another (fragile) which could lead to instability and that is what Europe was going through at that time.oPositivist sociology” studying facts as thins can describe and predict the social worldoSociety is a science of social facts.1Mechanical SolidarityOrganicSolidarityResulted from likeness of experienceTook more specialized tasksSimilar lives = similar valuesDid not do same thing Society held by interdependence
Geminscheft•Intimate relationships participate to bring us satisfaction (ex. Families)Gesellschaft•a means to a speciffic end•impersonal •(ex. buisness partner relationship, tutors)Suicide results from too much intergrationRegulation- Degree to which people are bound to society (how much freedom)?Social conditions that enduce isolation/lonlinessintergration- embedded within communities or groupsSOC 101: Introduction to Sociology Final Exam Study Guide Summer 2015 – Aaron Hoy Facts are “suigeneris” (of its own kind)They were important because we only had one way to study societyoDURKHEIM EXAMPLE: studied suicide (large scale empirical study)oSuicide rates were different across populations and countriesoThey were lower among Catholics and married peopleoDurkheim took suicide and turned it into a social conflictoToo much regulation creates fatalistic suicideoAnomic no regulation (Homeless)Ferdinand TӦnmies (German School of Thought)oTried to understand chaos of Europe by looking at transformationin personal relationships 2AltruisticSuicideAnomic (anomie)SuicideFatalistic SuicideEgotistic SuicideProduces Instability
SOC 101: Introduction to Sociology Final Exam Study Guide Summer 2015 – Aaron Hoy o