Chapter 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization - CHAPTER 2...

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2|THE CHEMICAL LEVELOF ORGANIZATIONFigure 2.1 Human DNAHuman DNA is described as a double helix that resembles a molecular spiral staircase. Inhumans the DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes.IntroductionChapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you will be able to:Describe the fundamental composition of matterIdentify the three subatomic particlesIdentify the four most abundant elements in the bodyExplain the relationship between an atom’s number of electrons and its relative stabilityDistinguish between ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrogen bondsExplain how energy is invested, stored, and released via chemical reactions, particularly those reactions thatare critical to lifeExplain the importance of the inorganic compounds that contribute to life, such as water, salts, acids, andbasesCHAPTER 2 | THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION45Download for free at ."The Chemical Level of Organization" fromAnatomy and Physiologyby OpenStax College is available under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unportedlicense. © 2013, Rice University.
Compare and contrast the four important classes of organic (carbon-based) compounds—proteins,carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids—according to their composition and functional importance to humanlifeThe smallest, most fundamental material components of the human body are basic chemical elements. In fact, chemicalscalled nucleotide bases are the foundation of the genetic code with the instructions on how to build and maintain the humanbody from conception through old age. There are about three billion of these base pairs in human DNA.Human chemistry includes organic molecules (carbon-based) and biochemicals (those produced by the body). Humanchemistry also includes elements. In fact, life cannot exist without many of the elements that are part of the earth. All ofthe elements that contribute to chemical reactions, to the transformation of energy, and to electrical activity and musclecontraction—elements that include phosphorus, carbon, sodium, and calcium, to name a few—originated in stars.These elements, in turn, can form both the inorganic and organic chemical compounds important to life, including,for example, water, glucose, and proteins. This chapter begins by examining elements and how the structures of atoms, thebasic units of matter, determine the characteristics of elements by the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in theatoms. The chapter then builds the framework of life from there.2.1|Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of MatterBy the end of this section, you will be able to:Discuss the relationships between matter, mass, elements, compounds, atoms, and subatomic particlesDistinguish between atomic number and mass numberIdentify the key distinction between isotopes of the same elementExplain how electrons occupy electron shells and their contribution to an atom’s relative stabilityThe substance of the universe—from a grain of sand to a star—is calledmatter

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Physiology, Anatomy, Atom, Chemical Level

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