Chapter 3 - The Cellular Level of Organization - CHAPTER 3...

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3|THE CELLULAR LEVELOF ORGANIZATIONFigure 3.1 Flourescence-stained Cell Undergoing MitosisA lung cell from a newt, commonly studied for itssimilarity to human lung cells, is stained with fluorescent dyes. The green stain reveals mitotic spindles, red is thecell membrane and part of the cytoplasm, and the structures that appear light blue are chromosomes. This cell is inanaphase of mitosis. (credit: “Mortadelo2005”/Wikimedia Commons)IntroductionChapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you will be able to:Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane, including its regulation of materials into and outof the cellDescribe the functions of the various cytoplasmic organellesExplain the structure and contents of the nucleus, as well as the process of DNA replicationExplain the process by which a cell builds proteins using the DNA codeList the stages of the cell cycle in order, including the steps of cell division in both somatic cellsDiscuss how a cell differentiates and becomes more specializedList the morphological and physiological characteristics of some representative cell types in the human bodyYou developed from a single fertilized egg cell into the complex organism containing trillions of cells that you see whenyou look in a mirror. During this developmental process, early, undifferentiated cells differentiate and become specializedin their structure and function. These different cell types form specialized tissues that work in concert to perform all of thefunctions necessary for the living organism. Cellular and developmental biologists study how the continued division of asingle cell leads to such complexity and differentiation.CHAPTER 3 | THE CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION87Download for free at ."The Cellular Level of Organization" fromAnatomy and Physiologyby OpenStax College is available under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unportedlicense. © 2013, Rice University.
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 01
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Consider the difference between a structural cell in the skin and a nerve cell. A structural skin cell may be shaped likea flat plate (squamous) and live only for a short time before it is shed and replaced. Packed tightly into rows and sheets,the squamous skin cells provide a protective barrier for the cells and tissues that lie beneath. A nerve cell, on the otherhand, may be shaped something like a star, sending out long processes up to a meter in length and may live for the entirelifetime of the organism. With their long winding appendages, nerve cells can communicate with one another and with othertypes of body cells and send rapid signals that inform the organism about its environment and allow it to interact with thatenvironment. These differences illustrate one very important theme that is consistent at all organizational levels of biology:the form of a structure is optimally suited to perform particular functions assigned to that structure. Keep this theme in mind

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