Chapter 4 - The Tissue Level of Organization - CHAPTER 4 |...

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4|THE TISSUE LEVEL OFORGANIZATIONFigure 4.1 Micrograph of Cervical TissueThis figure is a view of the regular architecture of normal tissue contrastedwith the irregular arrangement of cancerous cells. (credit: “Haymanj”/Wikimedia Commons)IntroductionChapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you will be able to:Identify the main tissue types and discuss their roles in the human bodyIdentify the four types of tissue membranes and the characteristics of each that make them functionalExplain the functions of various epithelial tissues and how their forms enable their functionsExplain the functions of various connective tissues and how their forms enable their functionsDescribe the characteristics of muscle tissue and how these enable functionDiscuss the characteristics of nervous tissue and how these enable information processing and control ofmuscular and glandular activitiesThe body contains at least 200 distinct cell types. These cells contain essentially the same internal structures yet they varyenormously in shape and function. The different types of cells are not randomly distributed throughout the body; rather theyoccur in organized layers, a level of organization referred to as tissue. The micrograph that opens this chapter shows theCHAPTER 4 | THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION131Download for free at ."The Tissue Level of Organization" fromAnatomy and Physiologyby OpenStax College is available under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unportedlicense. © 2013, Rice University.
high degree of organization among different types of cells in the tissue of the cervix. You can also see how that organizationbreaks down when cancer takes over the regular mitotic functioning of a cell.The variety in shape reflects the many different roles that cells fulfill in your body. The human body starts as a singlecell at fertilization. As this fertilized egg divides, it gives rise to trillions of cells, each built from the same blueprint, butorganizing into tissues and becoming irreversibly committed to a developmental pathway.4.1|Types of TissuesBy the end of this section, you will be able to:Identify the four main tissue typesDiscuss the functions of each tissue typeRelate the structure of each tissue type to their functionDiscuss the embryonic origin of tissueIdentify the three major germ layersIdentify the main types of tissue membranesThe termtissueis used to describe a group of cells found together in the body. The cells within a tissue share a commonembryonic origin. Microscopic observation reveals that the cells in a tissue share morphological features and are arrangedin an orderly pattern that achieves the tissue’s functions. From the evolutionary perspective, tissues appear in more complexorganisms. For example, multicellular protists, ancient eukaryotes, do not have cells organized into tissues.

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Term
Fall
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Tags
Physiology, Anatomy, Epithelial tissue

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