Fitness_vs._Fatness - 9 / Fitness vs". Fatness ONE...

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Unformatted text preview: 9 / Fitness vs". Fatness ONE of the factors physiologists look at when determining a person’s fit- ness is the relative proportion of' fat tissue to lean tissue, a proportion usually referred to as “percent body fat.” The most accurate way to deter- mine this percentage is to have your body ground up and then immersed in organic solvent, which burns away the fat, leaving only the lean weight ~— the ground—up bones, muscles, teeth, hair, etc. For those unwilling to pay , the price for such scientific accuracy, we suggest two alternative methods— skin-fold calipers or hydrostatic (underwater) weighing. The caliper method is the most widely used by physiologists and coaches, but, though quicker, it is far less accurate. In this method, sections of the sub— ject’s skin are “pinched up” by the tester in places such as the back of the arm, directly under the scapula on the back, at the waistline, or on the back of the thigh. The thicknesses of these folds are then measured by the caliper, and the combination of these measurements gives a good general indication of the relative percent of fat the person is carrying. In hydrostatic weighing, the person’s “dry” weight is first taken, then he or she is lowered into a water-filled tank, completely submerged, and then weighed again, underwater, on a frame inside the tank. Because fat is lighter than muscle and bone and tends to float, the sports scientist is able to approximate, through the use of a mathematical formula based on cadaver studies, the actual percentage of fat in a subject’s body. Ian: “I remember the first time I was underwater-weighed. I turned out to have forty-seven pounds of fat on my frame. I was horrified. While the poundage itself was certainly enough to frighten me, what was even more offensive was the sudden thought of how all that fat, piled up in one big lump, would look. The thought was a little disturbing, despite the fact that I was at that time training primarily for strength, not for looks.” The importance of your percent body fat cannot be ignored by anyone with serious aspirations for fitness, especially those concerned with aging. FITNESS VS. FATNESS 69 Weighing yourself on a regular scale as you embark on a program of weight - training, however, is often not only of little or no help, but actually mislead- ing. What can be misleading is that you may gain good, lean weight, yet, thinking you are getting fatter, cut back on your food intake, which will make it more difficult for you to recover properly from your workouts. The best way to handle this matter, if you can’t make arrangements to have yourself underwater—weighed periodically, is to simply pay very little atten- tion to your body weight. Be guided more by how you feel and how your pants fit. One measurement you can use to monitor body-fat changes is the difference between the diameter of your upper arm when flexed and the same arm measured straight down at your side, unflexed. The greater the difference, the less fat the arm. (This method should not be used to compare one person with another. It works only as a way of comparing a fatter you with a leaner you.) One of the sad things about society’s notions of appropriate body weights is that quite often people who begin an exercise program are dis— tressed to find they’ve gained a few pounds after training for a few months, even if the gain was all muscle tissue. What is important here is that lean or muscle tissue is good, whereas fat is mostly bad. They even look different. Next time you’re in a supermarket, ask your grocer for a pound of suet; if it’s winter, you can feed it to the birds. When the butcher brings it out, get a good look at the actual size — the physical dimensions '— of a pound of fat. Then walk down to the steaks and look at the difference. Actually, a pound of fish makes an even better contrast because even “lean” steak carries a high percentage of interstitial fat (fat Within the muscle tissue). Once you’ve made this comparison, you can understand how it is possible to gain weight and lose inches. All fat, however, isn’t bad. Mother nature requires some for the proper functioning of the organs in the body. And not only does fat help to cushion the internal organs and keep them in place, it provides a reserve of food that the body calls upon in times of trouble. However, excess fat is the excess food we eat. The amount of food we take in beyond what we expend every day through exercise and just living determines how much fat we’ll gain or maintain through the years. Since the hydrostatic weighing method has been put into use, a num- ber of studies have been completed that have determined the body composi- tion of a number of different age groups. For college-age men and women, for instance, the percent body-fat averages seem to fall between 20 to 24 percent for women and 12 to 15 percent for men. These are not figures for trained athletes, mind you, but for average, fairly active students. As people age, the “averages” for percent body fat correspondingly increase. This in- crease in body fat is the result not only of our decrease in exercise, but our corresponding nondecrease in calorie consumption. Furthermore, as we 70 HOW EXERCISE AFFECTS AGING age, our metabolic rate slows —— which means we burn fewer calories during an average day. There are several reasons for the metabolic slowdown that accompanies aging, one of which you can do something about —— your “muscularity.” According to physiologists, the greater the percentage of muscle tissue in a body, the higher the metabolic rate. So, one way to com- bat your body’s natural slowing down is to stay lean; being lean and muscu- lar you will burn more calories naturally than if your body possessed a higher percentage of fat. In each of us, as we read, walk, sleep, run, make love, type, eat, and simply sit and think, calories are being burned to fuel the energy needs of our cells. The more vigorous the activity, such as running or weight train- ing, the more calories are burned to continue the movement. (See chart on page 74.) A calorie, more properly called a kilocalorie, is the amount of en- ergy needed to raise one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of water 1 degree centi- grade. Almost all of us burn over 1000 calories every day simply by going through our normal activities. The average, full-grown man, for instance, normally uses between 1500 and 1800 calories per day to maintain his non- exercise activities. Women usually have a slightly slower metabolic rate than men, which, coupled with their smaller relative size, makes their caloric needs less. The exception to this, of course, is the nursing mother, who should be aware that the production of milk normally requires an additional 1000 calories per day. Naturally, larger individuals need more calories per day to maintain their weight than do smaller people. And older individuals, with their slower metabolic rates, generally need fewer calories per day to maintain their weight than do the young. ‘ If you plan to make a concerted effort to lose body fat as you train with weights, use common sense about your dieting, and before you start cutting back, analyze your body’s own particular caloric requirements. The easiest way to approximate your metabolic rate is to simply determine your weight in kilos by weighing on a good scale and then dividing your weight in pounds by 2.2. Then, multiply your kilo weight by 24 calories. If, for instance, you weigh 154 pounds, or 70 kilos, then you would multiply 70 X 24, which equals 1680 calories. This figure, the 1680, should then serve as a base around which you plan your diet. Naturally, this is not a hard and fast figure. You may burn more or fewer calories per day than this estimate, but you can use it as a general guide for determining how many calories per day you can eat to lose weight. A more accurate method is to determine your total calorie expenditure in a day by recording all of your activities for an average day in minutes. Ian: “For instance, one day in September of 1982, I calculated my total caloric expenditure for the day as follows: FITNESS VS. FATNESS 71 11 RM. to 6 A.M. Sleep 420 minutes X 1.2 cal per minute = 504 6 to 6:30 Make coffee, 30 minutes X 2.6 cal per minute = 78 wash face, etc. 6:30 to 8:00 Typing, correspondence 90 minutes X 2.0 cal per minute = 180 8:00 to 8:30 Cook and eat breakfast 30 minutes X 1.5 cal per minute = 45 8:30 to 8:45 Barn chores 15 minutes X 3.8 cal per minute = 57 8:45 A.M. to 1:30 P.M. Writing/typing 285 minutes X 2.0 cal per minute = 570 1:30 to 2:15 Cook and eat lunch 45 minutes X 2.6 cal per minute = 117 2:15 to 3:30 Pay bills/talk on 75 minutes X 2.0 cal per minute = 150 telephone 3:30 to 4:30 Get ready for gym/ 60 minutes X 2.5 cal per minute = 150 drive to gym” 4:30 to 6:00 Very rapid weight 90 minutes X 8.0 cal per minute = 720 training 6:00 to 6:15 Running 15 minutes X 8.0 cal per minute = 120 6:15 to 7:30 Drive home, cook supper 75 minutes X 2.5 cal per minute = 187.5 7:30 to 8:30 Eat supper/talk 60 minutes X 1.3 cal per minute = 78 8:30 to 9:00 Dishes/ clean kitchen 30 minutes X 2.6 cal per minute = 78 9:00 to 9:30 Write letter 30 minutes X 2.0 cal per minute = 60 9:30 to 10:30 Bathe/wash hair 60 minutes X 1.8 cal per minute = 108 10:30 to 11:00 Read 30 minutes X 1.3 cal per minute = 39 Total 3241.5 “Since I weighed 152 pounds on the day I recorded my activities, I had no further adjustments to make to the final total, as these figures are based on a ISO-pound individual. However, for each 15 pounds over 150 that you weigh, you should increase the total by 15 percent. Likewise, for each 10 pounds under 150, subtract 10 percent from the total. This enables you to know more precisely what your individual body burns in calories in an aver- age day and what you need to consume in order to lose weight, gain, or re- main the same. “By knowing approximately what I burned in calories for that day, I was then able to go to my food charts, where I recorded everything I ate on that same day, and determine whether or not I would gain or lose weight. On this particular day, I ate only 1629 calories (based on the estimates of calo- ries from my USDA calorie charts), which means that I had a deficit of roughly 1600 calories. Since a pound of stored fat consists of 3500 calories, I would come close to losing a full pound in two days of such activity and diet. “One thing I found to be instructive was to keep track of my food intake from time to time as I started dropping weight to see exactly how many calo— ries I was consuming. In the beginning, I did it for several weeks straight until I learned more about relative caloric levels, and then I did it whenever I seemed to hit a plateau and stopped losing. Often, the reason my weight hadn’t continued to drop was that I was eating more than I realized. “I also kept a notebook for motivational reasons. Recording all my food 72 HOW EXERCISE AFFECTS AGING on a daily basis — even the tastes and small bites I took while I was cook— ing — made me stop and think about whether or not I really wanted — or needed — to eat a certain item. More often than not, realizing it had to go in the book, I’d wait for my regular meal and skip the snack.” ' Recently, we’ve become even more convinced of the importance of recording what you eat and how you exercise as we’ve followed the remark- able progress of a Texas couple who came to us for advice on diet and exer- cise. The man, at age 40, was 5 feet 51/2 inches tall and weighed 238 pounds. His wife, at 39, was 5 feet 3 inches and 177 pounds. Their body-fat percent- ages Were 39.3 and 37.7, respectively. We started them on an exercise pro- gram that now includes weight training, cycling, and powerwalking, but their physical condition also required diet counseling and so we urged them to begin keeping records as a way for us to monitor their diet and for them to begin thinking and learning about calories and the amounts and sorts of foods they were eating. To say the program has been a success would be a classic understate- ment. Our male friend, Doyle, after 51/2 months, has lost 51 pounds and his wife, Margaret, has lost 30. Their cardiovascular progress has also amazed their physician. Doyle, for instance, decreased his resting pulse from 82 beats per minute to 40 per minute. Even we were amazed. Part of their suc- cess, of course, came from persistence and effort, but part came from the careful and complete records they kept of their food intake, their exercise program, and their pulse rate changes. The most complete set of calorie charts we’ve found are those published by the US. Department of Agriculture in a book called Composition of Foods. (See Suggestions for Further Reading for information on ordering.) The advantage it has over other similar texts is that it is far more complete, even including such wonderful entries as roast muskrat, canned turtle meat, and raw whale. And besides listing the caloric equivalents for thou- sands of different types of foodstuffs, it also includes breakdowns on each item’s protein level, carbohydrate level, and sodium level, plus ten other minerals and vitamins and the fiber content. It will tell you, in other words, more than you really care to know about food. Ian: “When I sat down in the evening to analyze my calories and my ac- tivity for the day, I also checked in Composition of Foods to see how much protein I ate every day, what vitamins I’d ingested from my meals, and what my carbohydrate intake had been for the day. In this way, even though I was eating less than I had in the past, I was still able to guarantee that I wasn’t becoming deficient in one particular area. I think that’s one reason I felt so well during my dieting. I always had energy for my training, slept well, and wasn’t nervous. It took a little time, at first, but now I can finish a meal and pretty well estimate how many calories I’ve eaten without looking anything up.” Another matter of importance, if you’re trying to lose, is the relative so- dium levels in different foods, because sodium contributes to the retention of fluid in the tissues of the body. PeOpIe become depressed when they see FITNESS VS. FATNESS 73 Activity Cal / min Activity Cal / min Sleeping 1.2 Chain-saw work 6.2 Resting in b8d 1.3 Stone, masonry 6.3 Sitting, normally 1-3 Pick-and-shovel work 6.7 Sitting, reading 1-3 Farming, haying, Lying, quietly 1_3 plowing with horse 6.7 Sitting, eating 1.5 Shoveling (miners) 6.8 Sitting, playing cards 1.5 Walking downstairs 7.1 Standing, normally 1.5 Ch0pping wood 7.5 Lecture (hStening 10) 1»7 Crosscut-saw work 7.5—10.5 Conversing 18 Tree felling (ax) 8.4—12.7 Personal toilet 2.0 Gardening, digging. 8.6 Sitting, Wflting 2‘6 Walking upstairs 10.0—18.0 Standing, light Pool or billiards 1.8 MM” 2'6 Canoeing: 2.5—4.0 mph 3.0—7.0 Washing and dressing 2.6 Volleybe Washing and shaving 2.6 Recreationap Driving a Ca; 2.3 Competitive 3.5—8.0 Washing clothes 3,1 Golf: Foursome—Two- Walking indoors 3.1 some 37‘” Shining Shoes 32 Horseshoes 38 Making bed 34 Baseball (except _ pltcher) 4.7 Dressm? 3‘4 Ping—Pong—Table Tennis 4.9—7.0 Shwmng 3'4 Calisthenics 5.0 Dnvmg métorcyde 3'4 Rowing: Pleasure-Vigor- Metalworking 3.5 ous ~5-0_15.0 House painting 3-5 Cycling: 5—15 mph (10 Cleaning windows 3.7 speed) 5.0-12.0 Carpentry 3.8 Skating: Recreational— Farming Chores 3.8 Vigorous 5.0—15.0 Sweeping floors 3.9 Archery 5‘2 Plastering walls 4.1 Badminm? _ Recreatlonal— Two" fmd antomObfle Competitive 5.2—100 re?” 4'2 Basketball: Half~Full Ironing clothes 4.2 Court 6.0_9.0 Faflglgnggv’l’rliknjiluglg‘ 4‘7 (while active) 7.0 Mixing cement 4.7 Recreafional_ Mopping floors 4.9 Competitive 7.0—11.0 Repaving roads 5.0 Waterskiing 8.0 Gardening, weeding 5.6 Soccer 9.0 Stacking lumber 5.8 Snowshoeing (2.5 mph) 9.0 Activity Handball and Squash Mountain Climbing Skipping rope Judo and Karate Football (while active) Wrestling Skiing: Moderate to Steep Downhill Racing Cross—Country: 3—8 mph Swimming: Pleasure Crawl: 25—50 yds/ min Butterfly: 50 yds/min Backstroke: 25—50 yds/ min Breaststroke: 25—50 yds/ min Sidestroke: 40 yds/ min Dancing: Modern: Moderate— Vigorous Ballroom: Waltz—Rumba Square Walking: Road—Field (3.5 mph) Snow: Hard-Soft (3.5—2.5 mph) Uphill: 5—10«15% (3.5 mph) Downhill: 5—10% (2.5 mph) 15—20% (2.5 mph) Hiking: 40 lb pack (3.0 mph) Weight Training (Rapid) (authors’ estimate) Running: 12 min mile (5 mph) 8 min mile (7.5 mph) 6 min mile (10 mph) 5 min mile (12 mph) Cal / min 10.0 10.0 10.0—15.0 13.0 13.3 14.4 8.0—12.0 16.5 9.0~17.0 6.0 6.0—12.5 14.0 6.0—12.5 6.0—12.5 11.0 4.2~5.7 5.7—7.0 7.7 5.6—7.0 10.0—20.0 8.0—1 1.0—15.0 3.5—3.6 3.7—4.3 6.8 8.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 (Sources: Consolazio, Johnson, &‘Pecora, 1963; Human Performance Laboratory, University of Montana, 1964—1978; Passmore 8:; Durnin, 1955; Roth, 1968.) Physiology of Fitness, by Brian J. Sharkey, copyright 1980 by Human Kinetics Publishers Inc. Reprinted by permission of the pub- lisher. 74 HOW EXERCISE AFFECTS AGING no real changes on the scale but it’s often because they’ve been retaining fluid. We have both become conscious of our sodium intake for this reason - and because there are direct connections between high sodium use and ath- erosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. As we share these thoughts on diet with you, bear in mind that neither of us is an expert in the field of nutrition. Bear in mind, also, h0wever, that the physiological basis of weight control, as we’ve explained it, is fairly sim— ple. Any physicist will tell you that if, indeed, you eat less than your body normally expends in energy, you will lose weight because your body will have to find that energy from someplace else. So, unless you create a fuel deficit through either increased activity or through a decrease in the amount of calories you consume, you won’t lose weight. One word of caution. For various reasons, some understood and some not, our bodies don’t take all their energy needs from our stored fat. When energy demands are very high and intake is low, the body will also begin breaking down muscle tissue to meet its requirements. To avoid this, try not to lose weight too fast. By losing weight more slowly, not only will you lose less lean tissue but your skin will have more time to “shrink” enough to fit your new contours. So follow a slow, logical approach to weight control. Don’t do it overnight. Even if you have a lot to lose, give yourself several months or even a year to lose the weight you want. To best lose body fat, common sense suggests the following steps. Using the chart on the opposite page, determine your total caloric expendi- ture for several average days. Don’t make your calculations when you’re on a trip or vacation or when you’ve been walking all day while shopping. Do the figures for at least three normal days, then average the figures to see what your daily caloric expenditure is. Do this before you start your training pro- gram so you’ll understand what you’ve been doing and why your body is in the shape it’s in. Next, for those same days, keep track of every single thing you eat or drink. Don’t diet on these days — just get as accurate an idea as possible of the total number of calories you normally consume. Terry: “I remember Jan came moaning into the living room one evening because the cheese sauce she’d made to go with some low-calorie steamed broccoli contained over 1100 calories when she added up the cup of half-and-half, the cup of cheddar cheese, the three tablespoons of flour, the three tablespoons of butter, and the four tablespoons of parmesan cheese. Naturally, you shouldn’t eat cheese sauce by the cup, but it is instructive to realize how something as simple as cheese sauce can absolutely ruin what would otherwise have been a very low-cal meal of steamed broccoli, broiled fish, and spinach salad. Don’t get me wrong. We still have cheese sauce, but now Jan uses skim milk, less butter, and low-fat cheese and I can’t really tell too much differ- ence in the taste. But until she started her food records, neither one of us ever gave much thought to the calories in cheese sauce. So keep track of everything, because it all adds up. And shows up.” FITNESS VS. FATNESS If your two figures — calorie consumption and calorie expenditure —— are close, and if they are an accurate representation of how you’ve been eat- ing and living, then you probably have not been gaining or losing too much over the past few months. If, however, you’re eating 100 calories or more per day over your daily caloric expenditure, you may have discovered the rea- son why you’ve been slowly gaining Weight. A hundred calories is roughly the caloric equivalent of a tablespoon of butter. Doesn’t sound like much, does it? But, in terms of a month, that’s a gain of roughly 3,000 calories, which, continued over twelve months, means 10 pounds or so of extra body weight. And a 10-pound weight gain in a year is enough to worry any of us, especially when, through ignorance, we go on gaining an extra 10 year after year. _ Now you have to decide how much weight you wish to lose and how quickly you wish to lose it. (Please keep in mind, here, that when we talk of losing “weight” we are actually referring to losing body fat, so while the scale will give you some clues as to what changes are occurring in your body, the real test is either underwater weighing or the way your clothes fit.) We recommend that you use a combination of exercise and diet if you want rapid changes in your body. If you look at the activity chart, you’ll see that it takes a considerable amount of time to exerciSe off 500 calories, while most of us can cut 500 calories from our diet rather easily. By cutting back to a more moderate eating level and increasing your exercise level, you should find the weight slowly but surely falling away. Once you’ve gotten into your third week of training, recalculate your aver- age daily calorie expenditure based on the amount of time you now spend in weight training or doing pure cardiovascular work. Then, look at your food records, which you should have been keeping during those same weeks to help regulate your diet, and see where you now stand. Are you still eating more than you burn in an average day? If so, either cut back further on your food or exercise for longer periods of time. At no point should you feel as if you’re starving. Be patient; don’t rush the process. Just pay attention to what you eat, how long you exercise, how vigorously you exercise, and use your head. We don’t, however, want to make it sound too simple, because it’s not. The formula is simple; applying the formula is not. While it’s nice to say, “eat more and you’ll gain and eat less and you’ll lose,” there are other fac- tors involved in weight control, some of which are well understood, many of which are still mysteries. The research that’s been done on weight control is endless, and more dollars have been made by “experts” selling diets to the American public than can be believed. Over the past twenty years, as our fas- cination with leanness has deepened, books describing all-meat diets, liq- uid—protein diets, vegetarian diets, fasting, movie-star diets, fiber diets, juice diets, vitamin diets, etc., have become big best-sellers. Yet we wonder if peo- ple would want to spend the rest of their lives eating as these popular books suggest. The problem with most of these “diets” is that they are quick fixes 76 HOW EXERCISE AFFECTS AGING for a lifelong problem. They capitalize — do they ever — on our ardent wish for the Easy Way. Fortunes have been made on the gullibility of otherwise intelligent, albeit somewhat chubby, people. As might be imagined, we’ve had quite a few people at the university - come to us OVer the past years asking for help ‘with losing weight. One of them, Sally, had been using an extremely popular liquid diet plan for almost two months when we saw her one day and complimented her on her weight loss. “I’m so frustrated,” she said. “I wanted to lose the weight, and I sup- pose I’m glad I did it, but I find I can’t make the adjustment back to normal food. I’ve tried everything but as soon as I quit eating just the diet stuff ex- clusively, I start to gain again.” __ This is an old story to us by now, and we don’t mean to single out just liquid diet plans. As we sat and talked with Sally it became clear that her main problem was in not knowing what to eat, or how. She would normally skip breakfast, have a hamburger, iced tea, and fries for her lunch, and then eat a large supper, generally with some sort of beef, lamb, or pork playing the starring role. She disliked chicken, she said, and only liked fried fish, so avoided it most of the time. Steak was her “diet” food. Well, in case you haven’t spent any time with your calorie charts lately, a broiled T-bone steak that weighs 114 grams (about Mr pound) contains 539 calories if you don’t trim off every bit of fat before you broil it. Few of us actually do trim the fat before cooking — Sally surely didn’t —— even though she cut “most of” the fat off at her plate. But even if you did first cut off all the fat, which should reduce the calories by nearly one half, when was the last time you ate only a quarter pound of steak and felt satisfied? All this is by way of urging you, at the start of this whole fitness pro- gram, to spend some time with your calorie chart and learn a little about food values. You don’t need to be an expert— just take thirty minutes some morning over your coffee to look up some of your favorite foods, and then decide whether or not you can continue, as you age, to eat them all the time. Despite Sally’s good intentions, her problem in maintaining her new low Weight came from simple ignorance. Many who have tried to lose weight in the past may also be guilty. You may have eaten less, but by not understand- ing your own caloric needs, you were still overeating. ConverSely, until you understand how many calories you burn in a day, even gaining would be difficult until you’re regularly consuming more than your body expends in energy. We mentioned earlier that you should also take note of the relative so- dium or salt levels in your foods, but there’s another aspect of dieting we’d like to stress as well, and that’s a regular schedule. And the most important aspect of that schedule involves eating a good breakfast every morning. But you hate breakfast, right? And it’s a lot of trouble to cook an egg, right? Lis- ten. By not eating breakfast, many of us end up with headaches by 10:30 from low blood-sugar levels that make us overeat at lunch so that we come back to our work full and sleepy for the rest of the afternoon. So fixing FITNESS VS. FATNESS 77 breakfast is a little trouble. So is ill health. Try to find something good that you can either enjoy or at least tolerate for breakfast and stick with it. If you skip any meal, skip dinner. Eating late in the day is far more fat producing than eating in the morning. In a recent study at a Boston hospital two differ- ent groups of obese patients were fed the same meal — calorie for calorie. Both groups were fed only one meal per day, and the only difference was that one group was given their meal in the mornings and the other group was given theirs in the evenings. And even though the activity levels of the two groups and all other factors were as equal as the scientists could make them, the group fed at night did not lose weight as rapidly as the group that ate in the morning. Why? The reasons are quite complicated, but the simplest way to say it is that our digestive system makes better use of food when it is con— sumed during the early part of the day (breakfast and lunch), when we still have time to expend more energy that day. Accordingly, you should eat sparingly in the evenings if you want to become leaner. Another faCtor you can’t overlook is that food is a great socializer. Meals are often the only time during the day when many of us come together with our families or friends to talk and relax. And because many of us like to let these times last as long as possible, we take second and even third helpings to stay longer at the table. Try to school yourself, if you really want to lose weight, to take only one helping per meal. If you linger and talk and you feel as if you have to be doing something, drink some extra Water, or some calo— rie-free beverage, such as iced tea, but don’t continue to pick at the food just because you’re still sitting at the table. Another consideration is your food preferences. Naturally, we all have certain foods we love and are accustomed to eating. Most of us tend to like the same sorts of foods our parents liked, and there are often foods, some- times ethnic in origin, that will always appeal to us in a deep, basic way, no matter how much we learn about calories, diet, or nutrition in general. There is, indeed, a satisfaction in these foods that cannot and, we feel, should not be ignored. That’s why neither of us would feel confident about recommending a diet to anyone that was not based on the calorie-counting method. Single-food diets, liquid—protein diets, and so on, are. almost all doomed to failure over the long haul because they deny us the sensual and emotional satisfactions we get from the foods we love. By counting your calories and charting your food consumption, you can teach yourself how to eat sensibly, year after year. You can learn that if Aunt Gladys or Cousin Tony cooks up something so wonderful you simply can’t refuse it, you know you can have some and then either cut back on your other foods the next day or exercise a little more. You learn to make trade- offs and to create an eating program that will allow you to control your weight, always. We want you to avoid the quick, 14-day diets “guaranteed” to help you lose 20 pounds. Instead, we’d like you to learn for yourself what you can and cannot eat regularly, given your level of activity, and then stick with this sensible program for the rest of your life. To help you along with 78 HOW EXERCISE AFFECTS AGING this, we’ve provided a chart from Brian Sharkey’s Physiology of Fitness, which will allow you to calculate your average daily calorie expenditure and which gives calorie equivalents for a variety of exercises that you might be involved in beyond your regular weight work. For your food analysis, we again recommend the USDA’s Composition of Foods, though Barbara Kraus’s Calorie Guide to Brand Names and Basic Foods might also be help— ful if you eat a lOt of processed or prepared foods. The Natural Foods Calorie Counter is helpful if you shop in health food stores.-- (See Suggestions for Further Reading for information.) There may be others — lucky others? — who feel the need to gain weight. If so, the same mathematical formulae apply to gaining weight as to losing; you simply need to eat more than you burn every day. You must ex- ercise care and concern, however, that the weight you put on is good, lean muscle weight — not fat — and to do that you must first reconcile yourself to gaining slowly. To build muscle, you must train hard, and you must make sure that you’re getting suflicient protein every day so your body can build muscles properly. Terry: “When Jan decided to gain weight, she took desic— cated liver tablets twice a day to increase her protein supply and to make sure she was ingesting good, lean protein. In my own case, when I decided to start moving up in weight back in the late 1950s, I started drinking more milk and eating as much chicken, fish, beef, and eggs as possible, along with fresh fruits and vegetables. Both of us ate balanced diets and both of us also took some vitamin supplements from time to time throughout our weight gains as well as our weight losses, but the primary thing we both did was to have patience._ You can’t gain lean weight overnight nor can you lose fat overnight. A goodly number of my fellow superheavyweights have found out to their sorrow how debilitating and health-destroying rapid weight gain can be. Friends of mine who have gained 60 or 80 pounds in a year often suf- fered from severe hypertension (high blood pressure), besides being unable to walk more than 100 yards or so without pufling like steam engines. Gain- ing as much as Jan and I gained — even doing it slowly — is not without its risks, but to force the pace beyond your body’s ability to adapt to it is foolish in the extreme.” If you decide instead to gain by eating everything in sight, you’ll soon find yourself looking more and more like a Pillsbury dou ghperson. And don’t forget that excess protein is stored as fat, just like excess carbohydrates and fats, when it is consumed in amounts above the energy needs of the body. If you’re exercising for forty-five minutes to an hour every day, you may need to be eating only 2500 to 3000 calories per day to gain, but if you have an ac- tive job in which you’re moving all daylong you may need far more. Only you can decide that. Only you know how active you are during your days and how much you normally eat. So, whether or not your wish is to lose weight Gaining Muscular Body Weight FITNESS VS. FATNESS 79 or to gain, a simple recording system will make it easy for you to know how to proceed. Vitamins We are often asked what sort of vitamin supplements to take. Well, ace ' cording to the Food and Drug Administration, no careful eater should ever need to take any sort of extra vitamin supplements. They’re probably right, though we admit to some skepticism about it. We’re fortunate to have usually lived on small farms where we’ve raised a great deal of our own food. We’ve kept hens for eggs, various poultry and animals for our meat, and even here in Austin, 'vve’ve put in a small organic garden that produces some of our vegetables;'and we get our meat from a relative’s ranch. We also have several fruit and pecan trees. Naturally, we both feel better and even a bit self-righteous about doing all this, but our primary motivation has been to make sure we’re eating wholesome, tasty foods that are as fresh as they can possibly be. There’s really no need to go into all the various preservatives or the high sodium levels that are found in most packaged foods, nor to discuss the length of time that most “fresh” fruits and vegetables sit in cold storage before being put up for sale, nor to comment on how this storage affects the taste of the foods, since anyone interested enough to read this book has no doubt been exposed to these sorts of discussions before.' What we want to do is simply to remind you, and to urge you, to eat whole foods — such as an apple plus the peeling, whole wheat flour rather than white, the potato and the peeling —— and to eat as many raw fruits and vegetables as you can so that you give yourself the best chance of getting the nutrients you need from your regular diet. But, if you’re still concerned, then take some vitamin supplements. Hedge your bet. We usually take a few vitamins ourselves: vitamin C, Vitamin E, vitamin B Complex, calcium, vita- mins A and D, magnesium, potassium, lecithin, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and multimineral supplements. This list is not designed to be a prescription for anyone. If you’re satisfied by the FDA position and you eat a carefully bal- anced diet, disregard the list. We offer it only as information so that when and if you decide you may need extra supplementation you’ll have some idea of what other lifters take. 80 HOW EXERCISE AFFECTS AGING ...
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