History of Architecture II 16:02 Introduction: The Enlightenment, Rationality and the Discovery of History St. Charles Church Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach Vienna, Austria 1716-37 Von Erlach was the first architectural historian Brought all of the greatest monuments in history together in one building Wrote A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture Enlightenment and Colonization change the world Royal Pavilion at Brighton, England by John Nash 1786-1823 First school of Architecture is invented by Louis XIV and Jean Baptiste Colbert Gian Lorenzo Bernini: First Project for the Louvre 1664 Design was too Italian, needed to be more French Claude Perrault: East Fa ç ade of the Louvre , Paris 1667-70 Sets of paired columns Claude Perrault wrote “ Ordinance of the 5 kinds of columns after the Method of the Ancients ” 1683 Book said you can deviate from proportional elements despite Vitruvius saying otherwise, there is more than one definition of beauty, all relative to time and place. Architectural beauty is subjective and in the eye of the beholder. Abbot Marc-Antoine Laugier Essay on Architecture Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia or a systematic dictionary of the Sciences Arts and Crafts First encyclopedia Jacques-Germain Soufflot “discovers” temples at Paestum 1750 St. Genevieve Jacques-Germain Soufflot Paris, France 1759-1790 National church of France Cruciform plan France did not have large pieces of marble so they had to engineer a way to use small stones and hold them up to create a lintel with metal Henri Labrouste: Bibliotheque St. Genevieve Paris, France 1838-1850 Society of Dilettanti Would take statues and study them and drink Promoted the Grand Tour and would go look at the ancient world then go to university James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, The Antiques of Athens 1762-1816 Giovanni Batista Piranesi Engravings Views of Rome 1748-1774 Julien-David Le Roy, Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece 1758 In the book he drew the classical elements but made them better, promoted the spirit of Greek architecture but with different details Leo von Klenze: Propylaea , city gate in Munich, Germany Carl Linnaeus: Systema Naturae
16:02 Neoclassicism: Refashioning the Antique for the Modern Era
16:02 William Hogarth: Chiswick House 1741 Painting that depicts what happens to you as a child effects you as an adult New idea Grand Tour Exploration of ancient cities To be a worthwhile member of society you had to know things about the world Colen Campbell: Vitruvius Britannicus or the British Architect 1715-25 First public design book First English translation of Palladio
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