Experiment 2 Report Network Analysis Techniques - F m?...

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Unformatted text preview:F m? '1». f.' 21+" Experiment Two: Network Analysis Techniques Engr 361 Section 1 Formal ' September/is/QOB' September/23/2013 5376 \_,/ Table of Contents -Abstract -Introduction -Major Part -Results -Conclusi0ns -References Abstract The experiment in question was performed with the intention to understand better a circuit by network analysis. The techniques include: mesh analysis, nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin and Norton Equivalences. Every technique was employed to understand better these methods of analysis, but to also get practice in the specific technique. Each method has different strengths and weaknesses, but the fact of the matter is that one circuit can be analyzed using many different methods. Multisim, along with pen and paper, was used to realize these 'different' circuits and was there for comparison. The tools used include: B&K Precision 1623A, HP 6212A, milliampere meters, Decade resistance box, circuit board, Simpson 260, and resistors of values 200, 330, 510, and 597. Introduction The topic for analyses, experimentation, and discussion revolves around one circuit and its network analysis. This is done on Multisim and pen/paper; these techniques used are both learned in some sort of Circuit analysis course. Basic principles such as Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, Kirchhoff's Current Law, and Ohm's Law are the underlying elements in all of the methods for analysis. The methods are performed and in this order: Mesh analysis, Nodal analysis, Superposition, Thevenin and Norton Equivalences. The data collected in the experiment are voltages and currents mostly, along with some Resistance equivalences, Thevenin voltages, and Norton currents. This data helped in analysis by understanding better the methods and that they should give the same results to an extent. Major Part Circuit in question-Figure 1: Electrical Network Part1 Now it is time to revisit the computation and network Analysis of the circuit in Figure I by all of the different methods. The first method used was mesh analysis, and it is accomplished by drawing meshes around closed loops. KVL equations found by drawing those loops and polarities are placed into a matrix to find voltages and then currents across the resistors. Nodal analysis is the second method; it is realized by drawing nodes and one ground node. The KCL equations in this way are also found by plugging into a matrix and the currents found could be used to find voltages. Thirdly, superposition is used to find currents with the independent voltage source disconnected or shorted, and then the independent current source is disconnected or open. These separate currents can be added to find the net value. Thevenin and Norton Equivalents are found by setting both sources to 0, shorted or open, and getting an equivalent resistance or Rth. Vth is found by creating a Voc or V open circuit, and Isc or I short circuit can be found by analysis of Vth/Rth. Computer simulation was then performed to have for analysis Wm and comparison. Part II This section involves the actual lab experimentation of the different network analysis methods of Figure I. Currents and Voltages are found by wiring up the circuit with resistors, voltage and current sources; the ammeter and voltmeter or Simpson 260 are used to find the values. This is done by using leads that connect into the correct polarities. Superposition is satisfied in the lab by shorting the independent voltage source to find the first currents, and the second time the independent current source is opened so that the second currents can be found. These values are netted together to find the final answer. Thevenin and Norton representations are founded by removing the 2000hm resistor and finding the Vth and Isc across the gap or short. Rth can easily be found then by dividing Isc from Vth. Part III The results, provided herein, are proven to a certain extent that the theory/analysis and the actual experimentation compare well. Some sources of the Analysis may not be as precise due to human error. Superposition was verified to the results and because the experiment went to an extent that realized that method and did it well. Yes, that value does not affect the outcome of the Thevenin or Norton equivalent. The methods of Superposition and Thevenin/Norton theorems usefulness are endless. Without these different and coexisting techniques, the electrical engineer or circuit analyzer would be short a few tools. Superposition, in specific, is useful when many sources are in affect. However, Thevenin and Norton equivalences are useful when the said person would like to shrink down the circuit at hand. In other words, they could take something which is a bit messy or drawn out and compile it. Results All results are included in appendices at the back of this lab report. However the data of the lab results are included here. (A) (A) Current Voltage (1) Current<mA) (2) Current(mA) (V) duseotling due to 50 mA Conclusions The goal of this study was and is to do network analysis of a Specified circuit both with pen and paper, but also with multisim and lab experimenting. These objectives have been met; the only objective that might have some error is the lab data. This is due to some experimental error, but also some equipment error. The experiment at hand should teach the experimenter that all of these methods are useful and similar in some shape form or fashion. Superposition for example is very useful when the person is dealing with finding currents due to different sources. References N/A A W H;— m H:— .1"!- .— i 9 ~ 3 ".OS¢.O;?59+,03057+ ..I I} m 929—. On... Goom h. 94 Ill 3' m3 VD 1311 1 . Goon E _. o .n > "Sega 222 gig. E 222 oofiyk$fl >wwsll — I 229 on > N93 tl'HMHuiflJ -flh : 2.9L 3 F w....,mnw C S 0 $8-2 we _ 25F: _..+..i:-: o: : cocoéw 00 fl «3 1' {{{{{ ., ' RS; cmooéw 00 :4 FE >3" 38-2 on F a? Efmmwi : coon h m . om Ghmm >mNIIIII NM— r> _. m - 8.3 0 m8... - w Jim: - o 38.2 BE 3 w: ¢ + 38. F wngmmmfig — n: + u\. I [I4 cmooéw on L mums— aoom n 3 G8" «I w vm w 38.2 on q E... - n: cmocnor OD Data Summary Sheets ENGR 361 and ENGR 363 Experiment Two Nan Ll: Computations Figure 1: Electrical Network Indicate voltage polarities and current directions directly on the figure above. Record numerical values below: Resistor Current (mA) Voltage (V) Current Current (mA) due to (mA) due to 25V source Exp. 2 Pg. 11 . ,......... ~xu1fi,fi§~'.mm .._-........._...._ a Name: NW Grading Sheet for Experiment Two Summary: Goals and objectives stated? (5) E 3 Experimental concept and procedure? (5) Computation using: ______A. Current (Mesh) (3) ______B. Voltages (Nodal) (3) __C. Currents (Superposition) ( 5) D. Thevenin Equivalent :41. Equivalent A to B (3) $2. Current through 2009 (3) E. Norton Equivalent "$7 1. Equivalent A to B (3) i g 1 2. Voltage across 2009 (3) F. Thevenin and Norton resistances (3) G. Computation using computer programs (10) Report Format: Organization (5) Expression of ideas (5) Mechanics (spelling, grammar, punctuation, etc.) (5) Part H: Measurement of: ______A. Currents and voltages (3) ____B. Superposition (3) ___Currents due to voltage source only (3) __Currents due to current source only (3) C. Thevenin & Norton theorems _l. Thevenin's equivalent (3) __2. Norton's equivalent (3) __3. Current through 2009 (3) 4. Voltage across 2009 (3) Part III: Analysis and comparison of results to theory? g A. Comparison (8) C WW3 B. Superposition theorem verified (3) C. Any resistance in AB (2) D. Usefiilness (2) Exp. 2 Pg. 10