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Unformatted text preview:F m? '1». f.' 21+" Experiment Two: Network Analysis Techniques Engr 361 Section 1 Formal ' September/is/QOB' September/23/2013 5376 \_,/ Table of Contents -Abstract
-Introduction
-Major Part
-Results
-Conclusi0ns -References Abstract The experiment in question was performed with the intention to understand better
a circuit by network analysis. The techniques include: mesh analysis, nodal analysis,
superposition, Thevenin and Norton Equivalences. Every technique was employed to
understand better these methods of analysis, but to also get practice in the specific
technique. Each method has different strengths and weaknesses, but the fact of the matter
is that one circuit can be analyzed using many different methods. Multisim, along with
pen and paper, was used to realize these 'different' circuits and was there for comparison.
The tools used include: B&K Precision 1623A, HP 6212A, milliampere meters, Decade
resistance box, circuit board, Simpson 260, and resistors of values 200, 330, 510, and
597. Introduction The topic for analyses, experimentation, and discussion revolves around one
circuit and its network analysis. This is done on Multisim and pen/paper; these
techniques used are both learned in some sort of Circuit analysis course. Basic principles
such as Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, Kirchhoff's Current Law, and Ohm's Law are the
underlying elements in all of the methods for analysis. The methods are performed and
in this order: Mesh analysis, Nodal analysis, Superposition, Thevenin and Norton
Equivalences. The data collected in the experiment are voltages and currents mostly,
along with some Resistance equivalences, Thevenin voltages, and Norton currents. This
data helped in analysis by understanding better the methods and that they should give the same results to an extent. Major Part Circuit in question-Figure 1: Electrical Network Part1 Now it is time to revisit the computation and network Analysis of the circuit in
Figure I by all of the different methods. The ﬁrst method used was mesh analysis, and it
is accomplished by drawing meshes around closed loops. KVL equations found by
drawing those loops and polarities are placed into a matrix to ﬁnd voltages and then
currents across the resistors. Nodal analysis is the second method; it is realized by
drawing nodes and one ground node. The KCL equations in this way are also found by
plugging into a matrix and the currents found could be used to ﬁnd voltages. Thirdly,
superposition is used to ﬁnd currents with the independent voltage source disconnected or
shorted, and then the independent current source is disconnected or open. These separate
currents can be added to ﬁnd the net value. Thevenin and Norton Equivalents are found
by setting both sources to 0, shorted or open, and getting an equivalent resistance or Rth.
Vth is found by creating a Voc or V open circuit, and Isc or I short circuit can be found by analysis of Vth/Rth. Computer simulation was then performed to have for analysis Wm
and comparison. Part II This section involves the actual lab experimentation of the different network
analysis methods of Figure I. Currents and Voltages are found by wiring up the circuit
with resistors, voltage and current sources; the ammeter and voltmeter or Simpson 260
are used to ﬁnd the values. This is done by using leads that connect into the correct
polarities. Superposition is satisﬁed in the lab by shorting the independent voltage source
to ﬁnd the ﬁrst currents, and the second time the independent current source is opened so
that the second currents can be found. These values are netted together to ﬁnd the ﬁnal
answer. Thevenin and Norton representations are founded by removing the 2000hm
resistor and ﬁnding the Vth and Isc across the gap or short. Rth can easily be found then by dividing Isc from Vth. Part III The results, provided herein, are proven to a certain extent that the theory/analysis
and the actual experimentation compare well. Some sources of the Analysis may not be
as precise due to human error. Superposition was veriﬁed to the results and because the
experiment went to an extent that realized that method and did it well. Yes, that value does not affect the outcome of the Thevenin or Norton equivalent. The methods of
Superposition and Thevenin/Norton theorems usefulness are endless. Without these
different and coexisting techniques, the electrical engineer or circuit analyzer would be
short a few tools. Superposition, in speciﬁc, is useful when many sources are in affect.
However, Thevenin and Norton equivalences are useful when the said person would like to shrink down the circuit at hand. In other words, they could take something which is a
bit messy or drawn out and compile it. Results All results are included in appendices at the back of this lab report. However the
data of the lab results are included here. (A) (A) Current Voltage (1) Current<mA) (2) Current(mA) (V) duseotling due to 50 mA Conclusions The goal of this study was and is to do network analysis of a Specified circuit both
with pen and paper, but also with multisim and lab experimenting. These objectives have
been met; the only objective that might have some error is the lab data. This is due to
some experimental error, but also some equipment error. The experiment at hand should
teach the experimenter that all of these methods are useful and similar in some shape
form or fashion. Superposition for example is very useful when the person is dealing
with ﬁnding currents due to different sources. References N/A A W
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ENGR 361 and ENGR 363 Experiment Two Nan Ll: Computations Figure 1: Electrical Network Indicate voltage polarities and current directions directly on the ﬁgure above. Record
numerical values below: Resistor Current (mA) Voltage (V) Current Current
(mA) due to (mA) due to 25V source Exp. 2 Pg. 11 . ,......... ~xu1ﬁ,ﬁ§~'.mm .._-........._...._ a Name: NW
Grading Sheet for Experiment Two Summary: Goals and objectives stated? (5)
E 3 Experimental concept and procedure? (5) Computation using:
______A. Current (Mesh) (3)
______B. Voltages (Nodal) (3)
__C. Currents (Superposition) ( 5)
D. Thevenin Equivalent
:41. Equivalent A to B (3)
$2. Current through 2009 (3)
E. Norton Equivalent "$7 1. Equivalent A to B (3)
i g 1 2. Voltage across 2009 (3) F. Thevenin and Norton resistances (3) G. Computation using computer programs (10) Report Format:
Organization (5) Expression of ideas (5) Mechanics (spelling, grammar,
punctuation, etc.) (5) Part H: Measurement of: ______A. Currents and voltages (3)
____B. Superposition (3)
___Currents due to voltage source
only (3) __Currents due to current source
only (3) C. Thevenin & Norton theorems
_l. Thevenin's equivalent (3)
__2. Norton's equivalent (3)
__3. Current through 2009 (3) 4. Voltage across 2009 (3) Part III: Analysis and comparison of results to theory? g A. Comparison (8) C WW3 B. Superposition theorem veriﬁed (3) C. Any resistance in AB (2)
D. Useﬁilness (2) Exp. 2 Pg. 10