Unformatted text preview: Lab 4 Exercise 6 Integumentary System 1. Complete the table: a. Layer Structure Function Epidermis Stratified Squamous Synthesize keratin, contains keratinocytes, necessary for hair/nails Dermis Papillary, reticular Produce collagen and elastin, necessary for thickness and support Hypodermis Areolar connective, adipose tissue Contains blood vessels, nerves, connects skin to muscles 2. List the four layers of the epidermis and their structure in order from deep to superficial: a. Stratum basale:
one layer of cuboidal cells within the epidermis base, innermost b. Stratum spinosum: “prickle layer,” filled with desmosomes that connect the cells c. Stratumranulosum:
flattened cells surrounded by cytoplasm d. Stratum
very thin layer of semitransparent cells e. Stratumorneum:
very thick/outermost layer, aids in protection and waterproofing 3. What are the two types of sweat glands? a. The two types of sweat glands are merocrine and apocrine. Merocrine
sweat glands aid in regulating the general temperature of the body. They function in releasing sweat and transporting it to the surface of the skin. This process results in the water evaporating from the sweat ultimately leading to heat being released. This is how the body is cooled efficiently.
Apocrine sweat glands do not become properly functional until the body goes through the stages of puberty. They are located under the armpits and genital area. These sweat glands become apparent during moments of harsh pain, acute or prolonged stress, and during arousal. Apocrine sweat glands release and transport any secretions to the hair follicles and obtain an odor. 4. What are sebaceous glands and hair follicles and how are these affected by the arrector pili muscle? a. Sebaceous glands create a fluid blend known as sebum. This is responsible for “greasing” the skin and hair and it empties into a duct which ultimately leads into a hair follicle. Hair follicles contain hair within their tubelike structures and their connective tissue is joined together with the arrector pili muscle. The arrector pili muscle is composed of smooth muscle fibers. The effects of the arrector pili muscle on the hair follicles become apparent when the environment is cold or when someone is experiencing anger or fear. This activity leads the muscle to contract and continues to travel up the hair follicles. As it travels up the hair follicles become erect and are put in an upright position, this is also known as goosebumps. ...
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