Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Puberty and Biological Foundations...

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Chapter 3 Puberty and Biological Foundations Definition of Adolescence: “Begins with biology and ends with cultural (when you assume adulthood roles)” I. Why Study Physical Changes? That’s where adolescence begins A. Major changes occur. Biological changes are important in their own right. -height, weight, etc. -increase in the sex drive B. Adolescent reacts to the changes. -Change in body image/gain a body image - Pubertal timing C. Others react to changes--parents, adults, peers. - Parents become overprotective of daughter -Expect you to behave more mature/ be more responsible -Early or late mature doesn’t really matter. But socially it does D. Some changes directly affect behavior--moods. -feel more independent -hormones influence us psychologically II. Reactions Have Importance for Psychological Development. A. Early vs. late maturity. 1. Pubertal timing. How old you are when you enter the growth spurt 2. Pubertal status. How physically mature you are B. Just plain growing up. -Some wanted to grow up while others didn’t C. Biology influences psychology. Those who are more similar biologically, should be more similar on a certain trait than those who are less similar (same for environment)
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III. Heredity and Environment or Nature and Nurture A. The Nature of Genes. -Also affect us psychologically -Our genes are 2% different than apes 1. Genotype: genetic heritage. From our 30K genes. (a lot fewer than initially thought) Our Genotype is not visible 2. Phenotype: the way genotype is expressed. Heredity and environment. The visible result of your genotype. hair color, height, etc. -affected by environment and biology 3. Reaction Range=range of phenotypes for each genotype. Enriched environment environment that always allows growth Restricted environment bad schools, bad neighborhood, bad nutrition, etc. B. Behavior genetics: Branch of psychology that tries to discover the influence of both heredity and environment
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1. Twin studies: identical and fraternal. -Identical twins have same genetic make-up. Any difference between them is due to environment -Fraternal twins same as regular brother and sister 2. Adoption studies. -Adoption studies and twin studies can be done at the same time. -IQ changes as we develop 3. Genotype/environment correlations. Heredity and environment always determine our behavior a. Passive. Opportunities made available in their environment Someone else (parent) provides the environment b. Evocative. Encouraging the environment Causes you to bring out in other people c. Active (niche-picking). -Actively seeking out an environment
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course PSY 336 taught by Professor Dusek during the Spring '08 term at Syracuse.

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Puberty and Biological Foundations...

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