ES 105 Ex1 guide

ES 105 Ex1 guide - ES 105 Exam Review Sheet Lithosphere...

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ES 105 Exam Review Sheet Lithosphere – Outer layer of Earth, approximately 100 km thick, that comprises the plates that contain the ocean basins and continents. Hydrosphere – The water environment in and on Earth and in the atmosphere Pedosphere - the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes Atmosphere – Layer of gases surrounding Earth Biosphere – The zone adjacent to the surface of Earth that includes all living organisms Geothermal Energy – The useful conversion of natural heat from the interior of Earth Open System – A type of system in which there is a constant flow of energy and matter across the orders of the system. Closed System – A system with boundaries that restrict the flow of energy and matter Dynamic System – a mathematical formalization for any fixed “rule” Feedback – The response of a system by which output from the system serves as input back into the system, causing change. Steady State – When the input is approximately equal to the output; equilibrium Ice-albedo feedback – the extent to which ice diffusely reflects light from the sun Origin of Earth and solar system – 1.) Cosmic debris + gravity = nebula 2.) Nebula contracts, spins, flattens 3.) Center becomes star, debris in rings 4.) Material in rings condenses = planets Compositional Layering of Earth – 1.) Crust (8-70 km from surface) 2.) Mantle (70-2890) 3.) Core (2890-6370) Mechanical Layering of Earth – 1.) Atmosphere (100 km above the surface) 2.) Physically Distinct Layer 3.) Lithosphere 4.) Asthenosphere (50-100 km) 5.) Mesosphere (200 km) 6.) Outer Core (2891 km) 7.) Inner Core (5150 km) Geologic Time – Time extending from the beginning of Earth to the present Relative Dating – it estimates the order of prehistoric and geological events Catastrophism – the idea that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope. Uniformitarianism – Concept that the present is the key to the past; that is, we can read the geologic record by studying present processes. Principle of Superposition – States that if a series of layered sediments have not been overturned, the oldest layers are on the bottom and the youngest on the top. Principle of Original Horizontality – states that when originally deposited, sedimentary layers are nearly horizontal
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Principle of faunal and floral succession – states that rocks with similar fossils are most likely of a similar geologic age. Geologic Time Scale –
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course ES 105 taught by Professor Kurtz during the Spring '08 term at BU.

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ES 105 Ex1 guide - ES 105 Exam Review Sheet Lithosphere...

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