Identifications:Terms-• Cuneiform; one of the earliest known systems of writing, used by the mesopotamian civilization. Started out as pictograms in 3000 BCE, and slowly progressed into Cuneiform signs by 1900 BCE. This system involved a wedge shaped tool (cuneiform→ means wedge shape) making quick marks and lines in clayand then set in the sun to harden. This early form of writing is significantbecause it was one of the first methods in which historical events were recorded and it allows us to have a much better understanding of the type of civilization that took place in ancient mesopotamia. • Akhenaton; He was a pharaoh in ancient egypt, during the New Kingdom and XVIII dynasty. He was a unconventional ruler because he changed the religious system from a previously dominating polytheistic society to a monotheistic religious society.Declaring that there was only one god to worship (Aten→ the sun disk god) was verycontroversial. It did not last however, once he died the polytheistic belief system returned. Significance,was that this was one of the earliest documented forms of a monotheistic religion.• Pharaoh; The term used to refer to the rulers of the dynasties in Ancient Egypt. They were therulers in unification of the entire region of Egypt and they were believed to be living gods incarnate. They were believed to be divine and their tombs were always extensively decorated and with art and buried with large fortunes to use in the afterlife.
• Sericulture; This was the process of silk production and it was only known by the chinese for a long time. This gave them a huge advantage of trading, because silk was highly valued in the western civilizations such as rome. The Chinese were able to utilize this monopoly on silk and trade for valuable commodities such as horses. The “Silk Road” was largely named that because of the extensive silk trade that occurred on the route although there were many other goods exchanged other than silk. Believed to be developed over 4000 years ago, this techniquewas very significant because it brought great amounts of wealth into China by opening the doors to trade in the western world. • Phalanx; This was a unique fighting formation developed by the Greeks (??Dates??) which involved a single fighting unit. Each man held a specific location in the ranks, the front had their shields up, blocking the oncoming enemies. The soldiers behind would hold long spears and thrust them over the shoulders/heads of the warriors in front and stab the enemies that were blocked by the shields. This unit was virtually impenetrable and allowed the greeks to win battles where they were significantly outnumbered. This also had significance with the greeks voting system because all the members in the phalanx were given the right to vote on whether or not to go to war which because they were the ones who would be putting their lives on the line.