Ionic and Covalent Binding

Ionic and Covalent Binding - Ionic and Covalent Binding The...

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Ionic and Covalent Binding The distribution of negative charge in a molecule will exhibit varying degrees of asymmetry depending on the relative abilities of the nuclei in the molecule to attract and bind the electronic charge density. The symmetry or asymmetry of the charge distribution plays a fundamental role in determining the chemical properties of the molecule and consequently this property of the charge distribution is used as a basis for the classification of chemical bonds. We can envisage two extremes for the distribution of the valence charge density. An example of one of the extremes is obtained when a bond is formed between two identical atoms. The charge density of the valence electrons will in this case necessarily be delocalized equally over corresponding regions of each nucleus since both nuclei will attract the electron density with equal force. Such an equal sharing of the charge density is an example of covalent binding and is exemplified by the molecular charge distribution of N 2 (Fig. 7-1) . Fig. 7-1. Contour maps of the molecular charge distributions of N 2 and LiF at their equilibrium internuclear separations. The space to the right of the dashed line through the Li nucleus denotes the region of nonbonded charge density. The values of the contours increase from the outermost one to the innermost one. The specific values of the contours appearing in this and the following contour maps can be obtained by referring to the Table of Contour Values .
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2008 for the course CHGN 124 taught by Professor Eberhart during the Spring '08 term at Mines.

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Ionic and Covalent Binding - Ionic and Covalent Binding The...

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